Education Policy and Implementation in Pakistan

Education Policies and
Implementation in Pakistan
Presented By :Farrukh Nazir
Education policy
• Education policy is the principles and government policymaking in educational sphere, as well as the collection of laws
and rules that govern the operation of education
• Education occurs in many forms for many purposes through
many institutions.
• Examples include early childhood education, kindergarten
through to 12th grade, two and four year colleges or
universities, graduate and professional education, adult
education and job training.
• Therefore, education policy can directly affect the education
people engage in at all ages.
Goals of Education Policy
1. Improve the academic success of all students by strengthening
standards-based reforms, including assessments and
accountability measures.
2. Establish and maintain a statewide education finance system
based upon principles of adequacy, equity, accountability and
3. Build effective educational capacity to support learning by all
students, with special emphasis on the need to ensure a
qualified teacher in every classroom at all times.
Goals of Education Policy
4. Ensure that all every school shall have school leaders who
will promote and support high achievement for all students
through effective instructional leadership, school management
and governance.
5. Enact state policies that shall ensure that every young child in
the state shall have access to high-quality early education
programs including pre-school and full-day kindergarten.
6. Ensure that all citizens of all ages shall have practical financial
and physical access to a rich range of post-secondary
educational opportunities.
Education in Pakistan at the time of
• Pakistan achieved independence from over a century of British
colonial rule in August 1947.
• The regions comprising Pakistan were relatively backward in
all respects, including in education.
Education Policies in Pakistan
• National Education Conference: 1947
• The New Education Policy: 1970
• The Education Policy: 1972-80
• National Education Policy and Implementation Programme:
• National Education Policy: 1992
• National Education Policy: 1998-2010
National Education Conference:
• First attempts in the field of education and literacy was the
national education conference in1947.
• The Quaid-e-Azam, in his message to the conferences said:
"The importance of education and the type of education cannot
be over-emphasized there is no doubt that the future of our
state will and must greatly depend upon the type of education
we give to our children, and the way in which we bring them
up as future citizens of Pakistan ... we should not forget that
we have to compete with the world which is moving very fast
in this direction."
National Education Conference:
• The first National Education Conference was held in
• The Chairman the Conference set up following SubCommittees to come up with the recommending
guidelines in each sector:
a) Scientific Research and Technical Education Committee
b) Adult Education Committee
c) University Education Committee
d) Primary and Secondary Education Committee
e) University Education and Primary and Secondary
f) Women’s Education Committee
National Education Conference:
g) Committee for scheduled caste and backward classes
h) Cultural Relations Committee.
i) Joint meeting of the committees on the university. education,
scientific research and technical education and cultural
j) Joint meeting of the committees on University Education,
Women’s Education and Primary and Secondary
Education .(Education in Pakistan UNESCO 2007)
• The reports of various committees were submitted for finalization
on 29th November, 1947.
• The report was shared in November, 1947.
Main issues focused in the
deliberation of the conference
• Committee dwelt on the problems and constraints facing the task and
identified issues of training adult school teachers, teaching materials
and literature for adult schools, instruction methodologies, etc.
• Committee cautioned against attempting to draw up a code or prescribe
uniform methods applicable to the country as a whole and, instead,
called for a committee of experts report on questions of teaching
technique and results of experimentation.
• Committee also advised against drawing any rigid distinction between
adult education in the strict sense and technical, commercial or art
instruction and suggested that adult students may be provided literacy
through subjects of a vocational character.
• The report recommended the following stages for the
execution of a programme of adult education.
• The first 5 years were to be devoted to planning, recruitment
of teachers and training.
• In the sixth year, about 500,000 persons were to be made
literate with an annual increase of 300,000 thereafter.
• Committee acknowledged that illiteracy was not confined to
the rural areas and a large proportion of the urban population
was also illiterate.
• Committee called on all government departments and all
employers and trade unions to ensure that their
employees, workers, and members are literate.
The question of levying a tax on those employers who do
not make adequate provision for the education of their
employees was also presented for consideration.
the possibility of making a period of social service
obligatory on all university students and
The use of mechanical aids to learning, such as radio,
cinema, the gramophone, and magic lantern.
The report was shared in November, 1947.
• This policy could not be implemented properly due to
increased number of immigrants and other
administrative problems of new born country.
• So more or less British colonial system was
The Ne w Education Policy: 1970
• The President announced that Government would lay greater
emphasis on the social sectors and would attach high priority to
the educational problem.
• A set of proposals of a new education policy were formulated.
• In the light of public comments, the original proposals were
• The Cabinet considered the revised proposals and appointed a
committee to examine them in detail.
• The revised proposals were reviewed by the committee of the
Cabinet in the light of implications of the announcement by the
President in his address to the nation on November 28, 1969.
• The new Education Policy was finally adopted by the Cabinet on
March 26, 1970.
Salient features
This policy has following salient features:
• Emphasis on ideological orientation.
• Emphasis on science and technology education.
• Decentralization of educational administration.
• The Policy aimed at free and universal enrolment up to Class V by
1980, with particular stress on girl’s education.
• Policy also identified that there were about 100 million illiterates in
Pakistan of whom 90 percent are concentrated in the rural areas.
• Policy innovated further to aim at covering 5 million adults and
school leavers by 1975 through requiring all employers, including
government, to provide work-oriented basic education to all of their
• Establishment of a National Education Corps.(Kaiser Bengali 1999)
• The policy was never implemented on account of the war with
India, secession of East Pakistan, and the collapse of the
military government.
Country's literacy status:
• At the time of the emergence of the "new" Pakistan in 1972,
the country's literacy status was as follows:
• Overall literacy rate was 21.7 percent, urban literacy was 41.5
percent, rural literacy was 14.3 percent,
• Male literacy was 30.2 percent, and female literacy was 11.6
percent. Rural female literacy was 4.7 percent.(Kaiser Bengali
The Education Policy:1972-1980
The 1972-1980 Education Policy was drafted in a somewhat
matter of fact tone and refrained from philosophical
• Policy aimed at “eradicating illiteracy within the shortest possible
time through universalization of elementary education and a massive
adult education programme.
• Equalizing access to education through provision of special
facilities for women.
• Under-privileged groups and mentally-retarded and physicallyhandicapped children and adults in all areas in general and the
backward areas in particular will give preference.
The Education Policy: 1972-80
• Policy declared that education will be made free and universal up to
class x for all children throughout the country in both government and
privately-managed schools.
• Private schools will be suitably supported for the loss of fees incurred
by them.
• The earlier objective of compulsory education was discarded.
• The Policy proposed to construct 61,000 additional class-rooms for
primary classes, train 150,000 teachers, and recruit an additional 75,000
teachers through the National Literacy Corps.
The Education Policy: 1972-80
• The 1972 Policy identified 40 million adult illiterates in
the country and declared that a massive literacy program
will be undertaken in every town.
• literacy centers will be established all over the country in
schools, factories, farms, union council halls and other
community places.
• A target of establishing 276,000 literacy centers to
educate 11 million persons was fixed for the period 197280.
• The new Education Policy was finally adopted by the
Cabinet on March 26, 1970.
• This policy was a good approach towards
betterment, but has many drawbacks due to
which it cannot be achieved thoroughly e.g.
universal basic education, shift towards agro
technical studies etc.
National Education Policy and
Implementation Programme: 1979
Salient features:
• The 1979 Education Policy was presented one year after the launching of
the Fifth Five Year Plan, with a change of target dates.
• The Fifth Plan proposed to enroll all boys of Class I age by 1982-83 and
achieve universal enrolment for the entire age group (5-9) by 1986-87
• the 1979 Policy proposed to achieve the same by 1987 and 1992,
• The Policy was presented as “the first in recognizing the great potentials of
our indigenous institutions and patronizing them for bringing about greater
educational development”.
National Education Policy and
Implementation Programme: 1979
• The Policy aimed at providing a minimum acceptable level
of functional literacy and fundamental education to all
citizens of the country particularly the young, irrespective
of their faith, caste, and creed in order to enable them to
participate productively in the total national effort.
• The Policy also provided for an elaborate adult education
• The programme proposed to set up 10,000 adult literacy
centers to be sponsored by the Ministry of Education,
Pakistan Television Centers, IRDP markazes, Allama Iqbal
Open University study centers, and social welfare centers.
National Education Policy and
Implementation Programme: 1979
• The possibility of a student volunteer corps, comprising
bachelors and master’s level students was also envisaged.
• It was claimed that the programme will raise literacy levels
from 24 percent to 35 percent by 1983 and attain 100 percent
literacy by 2010.”
• The 1981 population census results regarding the literacy
status of the country constituted an evaluation, without
comment, of the educational policies and plans over the three
decades since independence in 1947.
• The Policy was announced in February 1979.
National Aims of Education
The policy presented a 9-point statement of “National Aims of
Education" and a 12-point implementation strategy. The
implementation programme was ambitious and proposed to:
1.Achieve universal class I enrolment of boys by 1987 and of
girls by 1992.
2. Eliminate wastage to achieve 60 percent retention rate by 1983
and 100 percent thereafter
3. Reconstruct/improve 17,000 existing primary schools
4. Open 13,000 new primary schools, mainly in rural areas
5. Establish 5000 mosque schools for boys
6. Provide equipment to 12,000 existing schools
National Aims of Education
7. Supply text-books to all students at the primary level .
8. Supply at least one teaching kit to all existing and new schools
9. Experiment with different mixes of inputs to determine direction for large
scale investment in primary education
10. Carry out a nation-wide school mapping exercise to evolve a process of
school location planning
11. Undertake a nation-wide survey to determine repair needs of existing
primary schools and launch a programme of repairs.
12. In addition to the 5000 Mosque schools for boys, the Programme also
envisaged opening 5000 Mohalla schools for girls, and 1000 Village
Workshop schools to impart training in “mother trades like carpentry,
masonry and agriculture” and focus on “appropriate skill development
linked with community needs”.
• This policy was not implemented properly and failed due to
lack of planning and financial resources.
National Education Policy: 1992
• The socio-political milieu, among other factors, promoted to
reshuffle the priorities, restate the policy, revise the strategy,
and re-examine the fabric of education in Pakistan.
• A series of educational conferences were held in the Provinces
which were attended by a large number of educationists and
educational administrators from the primary to the university
• A National Conference was held at Islamabad in April, 1991
under the chairmanship of the Federal Education Minister.
• A cross section of the society comprising scholars,
writers,newspaper editors, scientists, teachers and Lawyers
participated and discussed proposals for preparing the
dynamics of the Education Policy.
National Education Policy: 1992
Key elements of the policy are:
1. Opening non-formal education to non-governmental organizations;
2. Achieving 100% literacy in selected districts;
3. Setting up model schools (male and female) in rural areas;
4. Introducing compulsory social service for students;
5. Using general schools as technical schools in the evening shift to
capture the drop-outs of general education.
Concerned Issues
• The participation rates at various levels of education are low.
• The progress in the direction of universalization of primary
education is far from satisfactory.
• At primary level, the drop-out rates are in the vicinity of 50 per cent.
• The women participation in education is minimal.
• The policy on the medium of instruction has vacillated.
• The quality of public instruction continues to deteriorate; the system
has not responded to the inputs made.
Concerned Issues
The curricula, apart from being overloaded, have not kept pace with the
advancement of knowledge. So are the textbooks which do not promote
• Pakistan has one of the lowest literacy rates in the region currently
estimated at about 34 per cent.
• The literacy ratios have been further aggravated because of the absence of
meaningful literacy programmes and a rapid population growth.
• Consequently, all children who are not enrolled, and those who drop-out
early, join the multitude of illiterates every year.
• Ignoring the existence of LAMEC, it also bemoaned that: “At present there
is no national programme of adult literacy.
• As it primary objective, the Policy stated thus: “Basic education for all
shall be pursued not merely as a sect oral target, but as an integral part of
human development plan.
• The ultimate aim is to eliminate disparity , the drama of under-development
• The raising of the collective ego of the nation through a facilitated, efficient
and effective educational system remains the primary goal of the policy.
• It hoped that the measures will lift the system to a respectable level of
excellence during its growth in the next 10 years.
• it proposed to ensure 100 per cent participation of children in education at
the primary level by the year 2002, and to eradicate illiteracy through
formal and non-formal methods.
• It also proposed to “increase the literacy rate to 70 per cent by the
year 2002.
Primary education was to be made compulsory.
• A major shift in strategy also occurred, in the sense that it proposed
to shift most of the adult education programmes to nongovernmental organizations, to be supported through ‘incentive’
grants from provincial and federal Education foundations.
• The Policy proposed what it called innovations as “a tool for
quantum jump towards excellence.”
• The Policy was announced in December 1992.
• This policy could not be implemented due to
change in political scenario of country
Educational policy of Pakistan 1998
to 2010
According to the constitution of 1973, article 25
1. All citizens are equal before law and are entitled to equal protection of
2. There shall be no discrimination on the basis of sex alone.
3. Nothing in this constitution shall present the state from making any
special provision for the protection of women and children.
Salient Features of National
Education Policy 1998 -2010
Aims and objectives of Education and Islamic Education:
• Education and training should enable the citizens of Pakistan to lead
their lives according to the teachings of Islam as laid down in the
Qur'an and Sunnah and to educate and train them as a true practicing
• To evolve an integrated system of national education by bringing
Deeni Madaris and modern schools closer to each stream in
curriculum and the contents of education.
• Nazira Qur'an will be introduced as a compulsory component from
grade I-VIII
• While at secondary level translation of the selected verses from the
Holy Qur'an will be offered.
Salient Features of National
Education Policy 1998-2010
Literacy and Non-Formal Education:
• The current literacy rate of about 39% will be raised to 55% during the first
five years of the policy and 70% by the year 2010
• Functional literacy and income generation skills will be provided to rural
women of 15 to 25 age.
• Group and basic educational facilities will be provided to working children.
• Functional literacy will be imparted to adolescents (10-14) who missed out
the chance of primary education.
• The existing disparities in basic education will be reduced to half by year
Salient Features of National
Education Policy 1998-2010
Elementary Education:
• About 90% of the children in the age group (5-9) will be enrolled in
schools by year 2002-03.
• Gross enrolment ratio at primary level will be increased to 105% by year
2010 and Compulsory Primary Education Act will be promulgated and
enforced in a phased manner.
• Full utilization of existing capacity at the basic level has been ensured by
providing for introduction of double shift in existing school of basics
• Quality of primary education will be improved through revising curricula.
Salient Features of National
Education Policy 1998-2010
Secondary Education:
• One model secondary school will be set up at each district level.
• A definite vocation or a career will be introduced at secondary level.
• It would be ensured that all the boys and girls, desirous of entering
secondary education, become enrolled in secondary schools.
• Curriculum for secondary and higher secondary will be revised and
multiple textbooks will be introduced.
• The participation rate will be increased from 31% to 48% by 2002-03.
Salient Features of National
Education Policy 1998-2010
Teacher Education:
• To increase the effectiveness of the system by
institutionalizing in-service training of teachers, teacher
trainers and educational administrators through school
clustering and other techniques.
• The contents and methodology parts of teacher education
curricula will be revised.
• Both formal and non-formal means shall be used to provide
increased opportunities of in-service training to the working
teachers, preferably at least once in five years.
Salient Features of National
Education Policy 1998-2010
Technical and Vocational Education:
To improve the quality of technical education so as to enhance the chances of
employment of Technical and vocational Education (TVE) graduates by moving
from a static, supply-based system to a demand-driven system.
Development of technical competence, communication skills, safety and health
measures and entrepreneurial skills etc. shall be reflected in the curricula.
Emerging technologies e.g. telecommunication, computer, electronics, automation,
petroleum, garments, food preservation, printing and graphics, textile, mining,
sugar technology, etc. greatly in demand in the job market shall be introduced in
selected polytechnics.
A National Council for Technical Education shall be established to regulate
technical education.
Salient Features of National
Education Policy 1998-2010
Higher Education :
• Access to higher education shall be expanded to at least 5% of the age
group 17-23 by the year 2010.
• Merit shall be the only criterion for entry into higher education.
• Access to higher education, therefore, shall be based on entrance tests.
• Reputed degree colleges shall be given autonomy and degree awarding
• Local M.Phil. And PhD programs shall be launched and laboratory and
library facilities will be strengthened
• Students from backward areas, who clear entry tests, would compete
amongst themselves.
• In order to eliminate violence, all political activities on the campus shall be
Salient Features of National
Education Policy 1998-2010
Information Technology:
• Computers shall be introduced in secondary schools in a phased manner.
School curricula shall be revised to include recent developments in information
technology, such as software development, the Information Super Highway
designing Web Pages, etc
Library and Documentation Services:
School, college and university libraries shall be equipped with the latest reading
Internet connection with computer shall be given to each library.
Mobile library services for semi-urban and remote rural areas shall be introduced.
Salient Features of National
Education Policy 1998-2010
Private Sector in Education
• Encouraging private investment in education.
• Schools running on non-profit basis shall be exempted from all taxes.
• Curricula of private institutions must conform to the principles laid down in
the Federal Supervision of curricula, Textbooks and Maintenance of
Standards of Education Act, 1976.
• The fee structure of the privately managed educational institutions shall be
developed in consultation with the government.
• Existing institutions of higher learning shall be allowed to negotiate for
financial assistance with donor agencies in collaboration with the Ministry of
Salient Features of National
Education Policy 1998-2010
Innovative Programs:
• The National Education Testing Service will be established to design
and administer standardized tests for admission to professional
• Qualifying these tests will become a compulsory requirement for
entry to professional education.
• This mechanism is expected to check the incidence of malpractice in
• Likewise, standardized tests shall be introduced for admission to
general education in universities.
Salient Features of National
Education Policy 1998 -2010
Implementation Monitoring and Evaluation:
• A comprehensive monitoring and evaluation system has been
envisaged from grass-roots to the highest level.
• The District Education Authority will be established in each
district to ensure public participation in monitoring and
• The education Ministers at the Federal and Provincial levels will
oversee monitoring committees, responsible for implementation
at their levels.
• The total expenditure of the government on education will be
raised from its present level of 2.2% to 4% of GNP by the year
Gaps in Education policy
implementation in Pakistan
Poor communication system:
• Policy implementation is a dynamic process. Education
policies in Pakistan are plagued by poor communication.
• less support from the stakeholders, less ownership of the
policy by the stakeholders.
Weak administration:
• Government of Pakistan (1979) says that for proper
implementation of policies effective implementation
agencies are important.
• Various initiatives for policy implementation failed due to
weak administrative machinery at the grassroots level. The
agencies at this level did not own the policies (UNESCO &
Government of Pakistan, 2003).
Gaps in Education policy
implementation in Pakistan
Poor policy evaluation mechanisms:
• Akbar (1995) elaborates that precise, accurate and clear policy
directives produce creativity and adaptability which helps in the
effective implementation as well.
• less precise directive does not leave room for the policy
implementers to use their discretion and flexibility which is
normally needed for better policy implementation.
Financial gaps and irregularities:
• In its report UNESCO (2005) has found that inadequate financial
resources for education in Pakistan have hindered the policy
• According to Saleemi (2010) financial resource in any system plays
the role of a life blood.
• Without enough monitory support no system can work effectively.
Gaps in Education policy
implementation in Pakistan
Attitudes and dispositions of public servants:
• Attitude and disposition is one of the key factors that affect
implementation process.
• It has been explored by Abbas (1994) that bureaucratic
underpinnings have placed more pressures on the teachers’
community in Pakistan.
• This trend has given rise to feelings of alienation among the
Inefficient Bureaucratic Structure:
• Ghaffar (1992) narrates that unless and until there is an efficient
bureaucratic structure along strong professional knowledge.
• The problem of implementation will remain unresolved despite of
having clear communication, resources and positive disposition.
Gaps in Education policy
implementation in Pakistan
Failure of decentralization measures:
• Zaki (1992) has found that in Pakistan devolution of responsibilities in any
system is not always accompanied by devolution of authority which has
created many complications in the discharge of the services.
• Naseem (1990) further elaborates that decentralization provides better
opportunities for the beneficiaries at the grass root level.
Lack of political will:
• Political will of the local implementers play a pivotal role in effective
implementation process.
• In Pakistan, due to none or less participation of local implementer such as
school principals, teachers and students, ownership factor of the policy
becomes weak.
• Jatoi (1995) believes that success of implementation of a policy depends
largely on the political will of the policy makers and policy implementers
Gaps in Education policy
implementation in Pakistan
Deeply entrenched corruption:
• Riaz (1998) writes that for successful implementation
of any policy, it is essential that the stakeholder are
ready to sacrifice their personal interest on the interest
of the system and for the general welfare of all
irrespective of nay personal whim or vested interests.
• This type of attitude develops an environment of trust
and transparency.
• Education system in Pakistan has been made hostage to
evils for many years after its inception.
• This trend of corruption has played with the
foundations of the overall system.
• Over the 50 year period since independence, efforts to increase
enrollment and literacy have not been scarce.
• A final common feature of all policies, and schemes is that all
of them failed to achieve their objectives
• The shifting sands of educational priorities was not limited to
enrollment and literacy targets alone. The
• Basic approach to education also suffered sharp swings.
• All education policies in Pakistan shows that setting targets,
bemoaning the failure to achieve the same, and setting new
targets with unqualified optimism has been a continuing game
policy makers have played add nauseam and at great public
expense over the last 63 years.