File - PE Course Specification

Swedish Gymnastics and the Model
How did State School Education begin?
What was Swedish Gymnastics?
What was the Model Course?
History and Characteristics
 Prior to 1870 the working classes had no formal education
 Education act was introduced in in 1870 making it compulsory for all children to attend state school
 Not popular as children could no longer work and vital income would be lost
 Purpose was to educate working class and keep the children away from unsafe factory work
 Employers wanted a more disciplined and educated work force
 Basic skills of reading, writing and arithmetic
 Religious education also important to instil moral values which middle class saw as being important
 Working classes would be factory workers obeying orders from their employers
 Emphasis place on discipline and obedience rather than leadership and decision making
Free of charge
Limited space
Built in local areas
No recreational activities
Day schools
Restrictions on activities offered
Catered for both sexes
Timeline of State school development
Development in state schooling
Physical activities
Pre 1870
No formal state education, some church
Foster Education act, foundations laid
Drill training linked to Swedish gymnastics
Poor performance in Boer War blames on lack of
fitness and discipline among troops
Military drill in the form of the Model Course
delivered by NCOs
Centralised government control of physical
activity in state school
Early syllabus of physical training
Last centralised syllabus of physical training
Content more varied, including gymnastics and
small sided games
Influence of child-centred, self discovery
learning in primary schools
‘Moving and growing’ for primary schools
1988present day
Education reform act, National curriculum PE
Wide range of activities to be taught with
attainment levels in four key stages
Swedish Gymnastics (1870-1902)
Swedish gymnastics formed the basis of physical activity in state school education
 Board of Education chose it over German as it needed no gymnastic equipment
 Based on therapeutic principles Curative practices to maintain health
 Scientific knowledge of the body
 Free standing and free flowing
 Taught in instructional style
 However the heavy losses suffered by Britain during the Boer war (1899-1902) was blamed on
Swedish gymnastics not being rigorous enough- physically or mentally
The Model Course (1902-1904)
Replaced Swedish gymnastic in 1902
 Aimed to
 improve health and fitness of working class for military service
 give training in the use of weapons
 develop obedience and discipline in preparation for work and war
 Non Commissioned Officers (NCOs) delivered military drill exercises
taken from war office
 Command style authoritarian teaching, Instructions such as
‘attention’ completed in unison
The Model Course (1902-1904)
 Military needs became more important than educational theory
 Education took a step backwards (innovation replaced by
 Everyone taught together (sexes and ages)
 Children treated as soldiers
 Dull, repetitive and cheap (only equipment was for weapon
 Lowered status of physical activity
The Model Course only lasted 2 years as it had no educational focus,
didn’t cater for children’s needs and wasn’t that successful in
improving health and fitness