Chapter 9-Policy Instruments and Cost Effectiveness

Chapter 9-Policy Instruments
and Cost Effectiveness
Dr. Dan Bertrand
LEEA 544
Lowi’s Techniques of Control
Distributive- bestow’s gifts in the form of goods, services or
◦ Subsidy-money for roads; contracts-privatization; non-regulatory
licenses- hunting; distributive policies- F/R lunch
Regulatory- formalized rules applied to large groups of
◦ Regularly licensing- meeting specific requirement to be able to
legally practice; longer school year;
Redistributive- Shifts resources (economic & power) of
power from one social group to another.
◦ Most effective to introduce changes gradually and to avoid too
many that effect the same people.
◦ Social Security, desegregation, privatization,
◦ Controversial and conflict usually involve large organizations.
McDonnell & Elmore’s Policy
Mandates-rules that govern actions
 Inducements- a transfer of money with
instruction on how it is to be used for
production of goods or services.
 Capacity Building- transferring money for
investment purposes in material,
intellectual or human resources.
 System Changes- transfers official
authority among individuals and groups.
Overlap of Lowi’s Categories
School lunch program is distributive but
are also regulatory due to the rules of
lunch content.
 Free/Reduced lunch redistributes public
Using Lowi’s Categories
Lowi’s basic policy types provide a way to
anticipate the political environment that
develops around a policy.
1) Requiring teachers to submit lesson plans to their
2) Using a large reserve fund to repair buildings.
3) Adopting a uniform dress code for students.
4) Reducing class size to 15 in K-3.
5) Implementing a pay to play policy for sports.
6) Applying for a grant to support dropout prevention.
7) Applying for federal funds for a preschool program.
8) Providing a day of release time each yr. for teachers
to attend a technology workshop.
9)Moving to an intradistrict open enrollment plan.
10) Requiring more frequent evaluations of teachers
whose students have low state test scores. P. 246
Distributive- little conflict, inform legislators
of how the policy effects your district,
suggest ways to amend it.
 Regulatory- competitive but pragmatic
political arena, identify competitors and their
positions, develop coalitions, talk to your
organizations lobbyist.
 Redistributive- identify who may join you,
form an ad hoc umbrella organization,
requires long term persistence.
McDonnell & Elmore’s Policy
Four alternative policy mechanisms that
translate into substantive policy goals into
concrete actions.
◦ Mandates, inducements, capacity building and
system changing, horatory or persuasian.
Used when new behavior is needed but
current staff and organization are
unresponsive to demands and changes
◦ Horatory or Persuasian- certain goals or actions
are a high priority by government.
 Recycling campaigns
Table 9.1 –p. 250
Cost Analysis
Cost- anything you have to give up to obtain
the benefit.
Tangible Cost – can be quantified
◦ Higher test scores
Intangible Cost- can’t be quantified
◦ Teacher burnout rate, low student morale
Cost Analysis Steps
◦ Identify the true policy objective
◦ Determine how effective the alternatives will be
School leaders must reflect before acting.
 Use one of the three types of analysis
◦ Lowi’s Technique of Control
◦ McDonnell & Elmore’s Policy Instrument
◦ Analysis of Cost and Effectiveness