FOOD-BASED INTERVENTIONS FOR IMPROVING MALNUTRITION IN INDIA DR. P.K. SAHA DEPUTY COMMISISONER (CROPS) MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE, INDIA CHANLENGES IN INDIA 22 % babies are born with under weight 50 out of 1000 live births do not complete their first year of life Only 44% infants are fully immunized 42.5% of children 0-5 years are underweight 15.8% of children 0-5 years are severely underweight 79% children (6-35 months) are anaemic 36.0% Women with Chronic Energy Deficiencies 56.2% women are anaemic Nutritional status in India • • • • Children suffering from severe malnutrition in rural area 1975-79 15% 2000-01 6.4% Children suffering from moderate & severe malnutrition in rural area 1975-79 62.5% 2000-01 47.7% THE NATIONAL NUTRITION POLICY (NNP) 1993 Identified key areas of action in various areas like agriculture, food production, food supply, education, information, health care, social justice, tribal welfare, urban development, rural development, labour, women and child development, people with special needs and monitoring and surveillance. The core strategy envisaged under NNP is to tackle the problem of nutrition through direct nutrition interventions for vulnerable groups as well as through various development policy instruments which will improve access and create conditions for improved nutrition. THE NATIONAL PLAN OF ACTION ON NUTRITION (NPAN) 1995 • • • NPAN 1995 laid down the framework for systematic collaboration among national government ministries / departments, State Governments, NGOs, the private sector and the international community. Specific implementation arrangements suggested by NPAN includes National Nutrition Council headed by the Prime Minister, Special working groups in concerned Ministries/Departments, constituting similar bodies like Coordination Committees, Nutrition Council etc. at the state and district levels by the State Governments, among others. Focus on reducing under nutrition requires a Multi - sectoral approach for accelerated action on determinants of malnutrition, better integration & policy coherence. SHORT-TERM NUTRITION INTERVENTIONS of NNP The direct short-term nutrition intervention: (i) Nutrition interventions for specially vulnerable group such as children below 6 yrs, adolescent girls and pregnant and lactating women, expanding the safety nets, facilitating behaviour change among mothers, reaching the adolescent girls and ensuring better coverage of expectant women; (ii) Fortification of essential food items with appropriate nutrients (iii) Popularisation of low cost nutritious foods prepared from indigenous and locally available raw materials (iv) Control of micronutrient deficiencies among vulnerable groups. (V) Incentive to Girl Education LONG -TERM NUTRITION INTERVENTIONS of NNP • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • (i) Food security for improved availability of food grains; (ii) Improvement of dietary patterns through production and demonstration; (iii) Policies for improving purchasing power and strengthening public distribution system; (iv) Prohibiting unwarranted diversion of land and water from food production. (v) Strengthen health & family welfare programmes (vi) Imparting basic health and nutrition knowledge (vii) Prevention of food adulteration ix) Monitoring of nutrition programmes; (x) Research into various aspects of nutrition; (xi) Equal remuneration for women (xii) Communication through established media (xiii) Minimum wage administration to ensure its strict enforcement and timely revision and linking it with price rise through a suitable nutrition formula. (xiv) Community participation for generating awareness on NNP (xv) Education and literacy; (xvi) Improvement in status of women. RECENT DECISIONS-PRIME MINISTER COUNCIL ON INDIA’S NUTRITION CHALLENGES • Strengthening and restructuring the ICDS scheme • Introduction of a multi-sectoral programme to address maternal and child malnutrition in selected 200 high burden districts. • Introducing nationwide information, education and communication campaign against malnutrition. • Making nutrition a focus in the programmes in schemes of line Ministries. Existing Nutrition & Health interventions in India Concern Ministries Activities Ministry of Woman & Child Development Nutritional advocacy & awareness programme Nutrition programmes for adolescent girls Micronutrient Deficiency (Iron, Vitamin A, iodine) Ministry of Panchayati Raj making efforts to mainstream nutrition Ministry of Human Resource Establishing linkages with RGSEAG, for Development addressing under nutrition and anaemia in both out of school and school going girls. Ministry of Agriculture strengthening improvement in food and nutrition security. Ministry of Rural Development. strengthened food security models linked with PRIs Ministry of Industries Food Processing training and orientation of Self Help Groups. Ministry of Health & family Welfare Integrated Child Development Scheme Macronutrient Deficiency (protien) Department of School Education Mid Day Meal and Literacy MID DAY MEAL (MDM) SCHEME • • • MDM scheme by Department of School Education and Literacy has a provision for providing meals to children studying in class I to VIII in Government, Government aided, local body schools etc. 2006 onwards the MDM provide 450 calorie and 12 gm protein to primary school children and the upper primary level are 700 calorie and 20 grams of protein. During 2010-11, 10.50 crore children were served hot cooked meals during school working days in 11.63 lakh schools in the country. Out come of Nutritional Programmes • Infant mortality has reduced from 64.9/1000 in 2000 to 47.57/1000 in 2011. • Child Mortality rate has decreased from 250/1000 in 1960 to 65.6/1000 in 2009 Other Recent Programmes • Right to Education: The Right of children to Free and Compulsory Education Act has come into force from April 1, 2010. Under this act every child in the age group of 6-14 years will be provided 8 years of elementary education in an age appropriate classroom in the vicinity of his/her neighbourhood. • Right to Food: In pursuance of the Government’s commitment to enact National Food Security Act, the Department of Food and Public Distribution, Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food & Public Distribution, have prepared a draft National Food Security Bill which is being presented to the Parliament. Cont…..Other Recent Programmes • Right to Employment : The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) is an Indian job guarantee scheme, enacted by legislation on August 25, 2005. The scheme provides a legal guarantee for one hundred days of employment in every financial year to adult members of any rural household willing to do Public Work -related unskilled manual work at the statutory minimum wage of Rs.120 per day. • National Livelihood Mission: After the successful implementation of Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act another mission called National Rural Livelihood Mission has been launched to further strengthen the employment opportunities. FOOD Security Initiatives Demand and supply of food grains Plan period Projected demand (MT) Projected supply (MT) Actual production (MT) 10th Plan (2002-2007) 234.26 230.00 217.28 11th Plan (2007-12) 244.00 240.00 241.57 12th Plan (2012-17) 260.00 Source: Working group report of Planning Commission Production and growth rates of major food crops in India Crops Production (million tons) 201011 Growth rate (%) (2007-08-2010-11) Rice 95.32 0.74 Wheat 85.93 3.21 Coarse Cereals 42.22 -1.16 Pulses 18.09 6.67 Total Food grains 241.57 2.90 Oilseeds 31.10 11.00 Sugarcane 339.17 -0.40 Source : DES, MOA Annual per capita consumption of foodgrains in India ( in kg) Crops 1993-94 2009-10 Rural Urban Rural Urban Rice 82.61 62.41 74.70 56.64 Wheat 52.56 54.02 53.03 52.84 Jower 10.22 4.75 3.55 2.24 Maize 4.62 0.37 2.42 0.26 163.03 128.97 138.08 114.05 Pulses 9.25 10.46 7.92 9.60 Oilseeds 4.50 6.81 7.74 9.95 Total cereals Source : DES, MOA Food based interventions in Agriculture Sector Schemes Launching year Major activities National Food Security Mission (NFSM) 2006-07 To produce additional 20 million tons of food grains including 10, 8 and 2 million tons of rice, wheat and pulses respectively by 201112 to meet the projected consumption requirement i.e 235 million tons, National Horticulture Mission (NHM) 2005-06 To promote holistic growth of the horticulture sector through area regionally differentiated strategies; to enhance horticulture production, improve nutritional security and income support to farm households and others etc. Rastriya Krishi Vikas Yojana ( RKVY) 2007-08 To Step up public investment in Agriculture & allied sector. Food based interventions in Agriculture Sector Schemes Launching year Major activities Bringing Green 2010-11 Revolution to Eastern India to utilize the untapped potential for improving rice based cropping system in Eastern India. Integrated 2010-11 Development of 60,000 Pulses Villages in Rainfed Areas To promote 60,000 villages in rainfed areas for increasing pulses productivity and strengthening market linkages. Accelerated Pulses Production Programme (A3P) 2007-08 to demonstrate plant nutrient and plant protection & improved technologies and management practices in compact blocks for five major pulse crops Initiative on Vegetable Clusters 2011-12 To create efficient supply chain for ensuring availability of quality vegetables at competitive prices. Food based interventions in Agriculture Sector Schemes Launching year National Mission for Protein Supplements Major activities To promote animal based protein production through livestock development, dairy farming, piggery, goat rearing and fisheries in selected blocks. Initiative for Nutritional Security through Intensive Millets Promotion 2011-12 Besides increasing production of millets, the scheme through processing and value addition techniques is expected to generate consumer demand for millet based food products having better nutritional values. Rainfed Area Development Programme 2011-12 To improve the quality of life of small & marginal farmers through integrated farming ( crop, horticulture, livestock, fishery, agro-forestry) to maximize the farm returns Promotion of Oil Palm 2010-11 To achieve a major breakthrough in vegetable oil production. RECOMMENDATIONS & STRATEGIES FOR IMPROVEMENT • • • • • • • • • • • • • Multi-sectoral convergent action: the different sectors have to break the silos and work in a coordinated manner. To implement the decisions & putting in place the institutional arrangements of the PM’s National Council on addressing India’s Nutrition challenges. Strengthening of institutional capacity, linkages, partnerships and voluntary action groups. Establishment of Nationwide Nutrition Surveillance system and expanding it to the other states Food supplementation programmes like SNP under ICDS, MDM need to be strengthened and effective coordination need to be maintained. Strengthening ICDS along with its delivery mechanisms. Both the direct and indirect interventions need to be addressed through multi-sectoral approaches. Thrust should be given on prevention & life cycle approach. It is important to understand the nutritional needs and the vulnerabilities at different stages of life. Effective training and capacity building should be provided through improved collaboration and linkages. A comprehensive approach need to be adopted to combat micronutrient deficiencies. Emphasis should be given on IYCF practices and its dissemination. Vigorous public education and advocacy initiative should be carried out to tackle malnutrition.