50 Years of Innovation, Continuous Improvement, and High Quality

50 Years of Innovation, Continuous
Improvement, and High Quality
August, 2014
50 Years of Innovation, Continuous
Improvement, and High Quality
August, 2014
War On Poverty
• In January 1964, President
Lyndon B. Johnson declared a
“War On Poverty”
• Goal was to eradicate the causes
of poverty by creating job
opportunities, increasing
productivity, and enhancing the
quality of life
• Led to Economic Opportunity Act
of 1964 and included programs
such as: Job Corps, Urban/Rural
Community Action, VISTA, Project
Head Start and many more.
Head Start: The Origins
• New research on causes of
poverty and impacts of
education gave way to a new
project…Project Head Start
• Culturally responsive to the
communities, and communities
had to be invested (maximum
feasible participation).
• Focused on providing preschool children of low-income families with
a comprehensive program to meet their emotional, social, health,
nutritional and psychological needs.
• Federal to Local due to civil rights issues
Cooke Report (1964)
1. Improving the child’s physical health
2. Helping the social and emotional health of the child
3. Improving the child’s mental processes and skills
4. Establishing expectations of success for the child that will create a
climate of confidence for successful future learning efforts
5. Increasing the child’s capacity to relate positively to family members
and strengthening the family’s ability to relate positively to the child
6. Developing in the child and family a responsible attitude toward
7. Increasing the sense of dignity and self worth in the child and the
child’s family.
Head Start: The Early Years
1966 (Johnson)
– Funded as a primarily part day 9 month program
– Design began with four basic component requirements as outlined in program
“guidance” (aka no standards)
– No legislated “standards” were in place.
1967 (Johnson)
– GAO declares Project Head Start a success in child development…but not in
parent engagement
– The Parent and Child Centers were established, first providing birth to three
services (replaced by EHS in 1995)
1969 (Nixon)
– Office of Child Development established – HS moved here
1970 (Nixon)
– Policy groups were defined
Head Start: The Early Years
1972 (Nixon)
– Services to children with disabilities was first required – “at least 10%” of
national enrollment would be set aside for these children.
– T/TA system first established (RAP)for services to children with disabilities.
– Home Based services model was approved
– Nixon vetoes Comprehensive Child Development bill citing communism
1973 (Nixon)
– First CDA program established. CDA’s in every classroom proposed for 1976.
– National Head Start Association was established
1975 (Ford)
– First Performance Standards were published and the review process was
Head Start: Through the Years
1977 (Carter)
– First expansion approved (expansion occurred the following year)
– First bicultural and bilingual programs begin in 21 states
1986 (Reagan)
– Quality versus Quantity debate flares up with proposal to serve more children
for only one year. Proposal is defeated.
1990 (George H Bush)
– Largest single increase approved for Head Start in its history. President and
Congress promised “full funding”
– Head Start Expansion and Quality Improvement Act passed.
– Head Start/State Collaboration Projects begun.
– Child Care Block Grant passed.
Head Start: Reauthorizations
1994 (Clinton)
– Reauthorization and Standards revision occurs with major focus on quality
– Early Head Start created
– HS/EHS – CC collaborations heavily pushed and discussed
1995 (Clinton)
First Early Head Start programs were funded.
CDA requirement – a CDA in every classroom – to be in place in 1996.
Head Start Performance Standards begun to be developed
Head Start/Child Care partnership initiative underway.
Required on-site peer reviews every three years enforced.
Programs shut-down if deficiencies are not corrected within one year
1996 (Clinton)
– Welfare reform – significantly alters social service provision
– Performance standards and CDA requirement Instituted.
Head Start: Reauthorizations
1998 (Clinton)
– Reauthorization occurs with most significant changes made to HS:
• Purpose of Head Start changed from the development of social competence to
the promotion of school readiness
• For profit organizations may compete for Head Start grants
• major focus on child and family literacy goals
• Establishes expectations for competitive salaries for teachers and other Staff
• Requires outcomes assessment processes for children (Performance Measures)
• Adds significant work requirements in the social services area
• Requires transition activities
• Requires enhancement of HS/CC partnership agreements
• Requires AA Degrees for at least one teacher in each Head Start classroom
• Requires focus on full day-full year services for families
• Creates major shifts and new requirements in management systems
Head Start: The 2000’s
• Focus on accountability and results
increases significantly
• Assessment Program (National
Reporting System) created…and
• Attempt to block grant and move HS
to Dept. of Ed proposed and fought
• Impact Study conducted
• 2007 Reauthorization passes
includes sweeping changes to
accountability, quality, and focus on
cognitive development
Head Start: The Obama Administration
• Obama campaigns on quadrupling
infant-toddler services
• Doubles funding for EHS in ARRA
• Implementation of many 2007
requirements (degree
requirements, DRS, etc)
• Impact study results released
• Creation of EHS-CC Partnership
• Introduces largest Pre-K proposal
since 1972
Wrapping up
 Head Start was the first system of early learning
 Head Start has had significant support from Republicans as well as
Democrats from 1964
 Innovative demonstration projects have been vital to the
development and success of Head Start (Project Head Start, Follow
Through, Parent & Child Centers, Disabilities, bilingual services,
Home Start, CDA, Child and Family Resource Program)
 Continuous improvement of Head Start crucial to success
 Parents are the reason HS still exists today
 Head Start still seen more as an educational program than a social
service or two generation program