The Second War for Independence and the Upsurge of Nationalism

CH 12 PPT:
Second War for Independence and
Upsurge of Nationalism
Ch 12 Tmwk
1. Why did the U.S. go to war with Britain
in 1812? Who would side with Britain?
2. Pg 234 From what 3 areas did the U.S.
launch attacks on Britain?
3. Pg 234 Name 2 bodies of water where
battles took place.
4. Pg 237 In the presidential election of
1812, which region was won by
Madison? By Clinton?
Madison’s War with Britain
• Support for war came from South and West, and from
Republicans in Pennsylvania and Virginia.
• Federalists in N. (especially New England) and S.
were against war with Britain.
• Federalists also opposed gaining land in Canada
because it would add more agrarian states that
would vote for Jeffersonian Republicans.
• During the war, New England lent money to Britain
and sent war supplies to Canada.
• U.S. military: ill-trained, not disciplined.
Causes of the War of 1812
• British arming hostile Indians
• Orders in Council
• Embargo and Non-Intercourse
• War Hawks cry for war
• British impressments
• Canadian expansion
Invasion of Canada
• Offensive strategy in Canada = poorly conceived
and executed - a complete failure.
• American goals: invade Canada so that 1.) British
won’t have a staging ground 2.) U.S. can gain
territory in the peace treaty.
• U.S. made three-pronged invasion that set out
from Detroit, Niagara, and Lake Champlain.
• U.S. forces divided - became 3 weak forces,
instead of 1 strong force.
• These invasions quickly beaten back by British.
Three Separate Invasions
• 1813 Battle of Lake Erie: control of Great Lakes
important. Naval Officer Oliver Hazard Perry
captured a British fleet and won a victory for U.S.
• Oct 1813 Battle of the Thames: Retreating
Redcoats overtaken by General Harrison’s army
and defeated by U.S.
• 1814 Battle of Plattsburgh: U.S. Commander
Macdonough was losing, but made a brilliant move
by turning the ship - snatched victory from Britain
Battles Cont.
• Aug. 1814: British invaders set fire
to the capital and White House
• 1814 Battle of Horseshoe Bend:
Andrew Jackson defeated the
Creek Indian Tribe
• 1815 Battle of New Orleans –
Andrew Jackson won a great
victory – made him a national
hero. (2,000 British
Treaty of Ghent 1814
• 5 American peacemakers sent to
Ghent, Belgium.
• Britain made demand: Americans
refused to give in.
• Both sides simply agreed to stop
fighting and restore conquered
• No mention in the treaty of
American grievances.
• Neither side was able to win a
decisive victory so war = a draw.
5. Pg 238 What states are being
ridiculed in the political cartoon?
6. Pg 238 What is the political cartoon
intending to depict?
1815 Hartford Convention:
New England Federalists were discontent
Had economic losses due to embargo
Called to abolish 3/5 Compromise
Wanted amendment requiring a 2/3 vote of
Congress for certain laws
• Limit Presidents to one term
• End of the War of 1812: silenced their demands
• Federalist Party dies out a year later.
Post War of 1812
• British blockade of goods helped stimulate
American manufacturing.
• 1817 Rush-Bagot Agreement between Britain and
U.S. - severely limited naval armament by Great
• Increased sense of U.S. nationalism.
• Revived Bank of U.S.: voted by Congress in 1816.
• Army expanded to 10,000 men
• British goods (surplus piled up during war) flooded
U.S. after war, for low prices.
• U.S. manufacturers cried out for protection –
Congress passed Tariff of 1816: 1st tariff in U.S.
passed for protection of goods, not for revenue.
American System
• Henry Clay: plan for developing a profitable home
• 3 main parts:
– Strong banking system to provide a lot of credit.
– Protective tariff to help American manufacturers.
– Build network of roads and canals in Ohio area,
(money to come from the tariff) to connect all of
U.S. to exchange goods/raw materials.
– Congress voted to give money for construction
programs, but Pres Madison vetoed it. Believed
states were responsible for roads/canals, and not
federal Govt.
Era of Good Feelings
• 1816: Monroe becomes Pres
– took a good will tour
• Virginia dynasty
• Era was a misnomer due to
– Death of Federalist party
– Sectionalism
– Tariff Issue
– Public land speculation
– Slavery issue
Panic of 1819
• Brought deflation, depression, bankruptcies, bank
failures, unemployment, soup kitchens, and
overcrowded debtor’s prisons.
• 1 cause was over speculation of frontier lands,
especially in West.
• Bank of U.S. forced western banks to foreclose
mortgages on farms.
7. Pg 247 What did the legislative branch
decide in this Act: Missouri Compromise?
8. Pg. 250 At what line of latitude was the
northern border of the Louisiana territory?
Which river is south of this border?
9. Pg 251 In what year did the U.S. acquire
10. Pg 254 At what line of latitude was the
northern border of Oregon Country?
Slavery and Sectional Balance
• Conflict over Western lands which were territories:
to admit as Free or Slave states?
• House of Representatives passed 1819 Tallmadge
Amendment: no more slaves to be brought to
• Southerners cried out against Tallmadge
Amendment – Senate voted against it.
1820 Missouri Compromise
• Congress agreed to admit Missouri as slave state.
• Maine, had been part of Mass., was admitted as
free state, which kept balance at 12 each.
• Future states from Louisiana area that were north
of 36° 30' line, would be free.
• Set precedent that Congress could control the
slave status of the remaining territories that would
later become states.
• How will this be a temporary compromise?
Missouri Compromise
Judicial Nationalism
See separate Word Doc
McCulloch v. Maryland
Cohens v. Virginia
Gibbons v. Ogden
Fletcher v. Peck
Asserting federal authority
Limiting states’ rights