MDG #8: Develop a Global Partnership for Development Ana regina Anonas, Noelle Patricia Paraso, Camila Lastrilla IV-B Targets 1. Deal comprehensively with the debt problems of developing countries through national and international measures in order to make debt sustainable in the long term 2. In cooperation with the private sector, make available the benefits of new technologies, especially information and communications 3. Provide Access to Affordable and Essential Drugs in cooperation with pharmaceutical industries What about MDG #8? Target #1: Deal comprehensively with the debt problems of developing countries through national and international measures in order to make debt sustainable in the long term • This target deals with the debt problems of developing countries through both national and international measures Indicator 1.1 Debt service as a percentage of exports of goods and services Year 1990 2003 2010 Percent 27.2% 16% 8.8% Government Intervention • The Philippines sought debt relief from its Paris Club creditors after the restoration of democratic political institutions in 1986. The country acquired a debt reduction Program under the Brady bond scheme. Also, the Philippine government implemented reliable fiscal, monetary, and exchange rate policies aimed for stable growth in the economy. In addition, it pursued long-term industrial restructuring made to improve the international competitiveness of industries through import liberalization and tariff reduction. Target #2: In cooperation with the private sector, make available the benefits of new technologies, especially information and communications • The technologies of the Filipino are taken into consideration in relation to the obtaining of information and making communications • This will be measured through the hundredths. Indicator 2.1: Telephone lines and cellular subscribers Year Value 1990 610032 1991 682539 1992 716631 1993 962162 1994 1281555 1995 1903501 1996 2746024 1997 3421620 1998 4225257 1999 5742415 2000 9515746 2001 15474254 2002 18693934 2003 25849560 2004 36373368 Indicator 2.2: Telephone lines and cellular subscribers per 100 population Year Value 1990 1 1991 1.1 1992 1.12 1993 1.47 1994 1.91 1995 2.77 1996 3.92 1997 4.72 1998 5.79 1999 7.71 2000 12.44 2001 19.78 2002 23.52 2003 31.89 2004 44.01 Indicator 2.3: Personal computers per 100 population Year Value Change Cumulative Change 1990 0.35 1991 0.42 20.00 % 20.00 % 1992 0.52 23.81 % 48.57 % 1993 0.63 21.15 % 80.00 % 1994 0.79 25.40 % 125.71 % 1995 0.96 21.52 % 174.29 % 1996 1.16 20.83 % 231.43 % 1997 1.34 15.52 % 282.86 % 1998 1.51 12.69 % 331.43 % 1999 1.69 11.92 % 382.86 % 2000 1.93 14.20 % 451.43 % 2001 2.17 12.44 % 520.00 % 2002 2.77 27.65 % 691.43 % 2003 3.51 26.71 % 902.86 % 2004 4.46 27.07 % 1,174.29 % Indicator 2.4: Internet users per 100 population Year Value Change Cumulative Change 1990 0 1994 0.01 1995 0.03 200.00 % 200.00 % 1996 0.06 100.00 % 500.00 % 1997 0.14 133.33 % 1,300.00 % 1998 1.13 707.14 % 11,200.00 % 1999 1.46 29.20 % 14,500.00 % 2000 2.01 37.67 % 20,000.00 % 2001 2.56 27.36 % 25,500.00 % 2002 4.4 71.88 % 43,900.00 % 2003 4.93 12.05 % 49,200.00 % 2004 5.32 7.91 % 53,100.00 % Target #3: Provide Access to Affordable and Essential Drugs in cooperation with pharmaceutical industries • “Only 66 percent of the Philippine’s population had access to available and essential medicines”, this is according to a WHO (World Health Organization) 2004 publication. This was all based on a percentage of the population who had access to at least 20 types of necessary medicine. In areas of the Philippines that experience both high morbidity and mortality rates, this, the access, depends as well on the rates of availability and affordability. Factors that affect the accessibility of these drugs include “the rational selection and use of medicines, tailored procurement, sustainable financing and reliable health and supply systems.” Government Intervention • Establishment of Botika ng Barangay: - Seeks to makes good quality medicine affordable to those of limited means. - Through this program around 30-50 types of essential drugs were made for even the least populated areas of the country. Government Intervention • Botika ng Bayan: launched in 2004, it is a network of privately-owned pharmacies that will sell cheaper drugs together with the commercially-priced ones Objectives: - to identify areas of collaboration between the DOH and PITC in relation to the Expanded Drug Access Pilot Program Government Intervention - - to identify procedures for the operation of selected Botika ng Bayan as distribution network as well as accreditation of convenience stores under the Botika ng Bayan identified by PITC to provide clear definition of roles and responsibilities among stakeholder entities. The use of generic products by DOH facilities and institutions is also being encouraged by requiring these entities to use only generic terminologies in procuring, prescribing, dispensing and administering medicines. The same institutions are also asked to promote the Generics Law to enhance the public’s awareness of its objectives as well as to establish GMA 50 Help Desks to assist the public in gaining access to lowcost medicines and provide information on rational drug use GOAL 8. DEVELOP A GLOBAL PARTNERSHIP FOR DEVELOPMENT target 1 indicator 1.1 target 2 Deal comprehensively with the debt problems of developing countries thru national & international measures in order to make debt sustainable in the long term Debt service as a percentage of exports of goods and services 27.2 1990 Decreasing (POSITIVE) 8.8 2010 In cooperation with the private sector, make available the benefits of new technologies, especially information and communications indicator 2.1 Telephone lines and cellular phone subscribers 0.61 1990 indicator 2.2 Telephone lines and cellular subscribers per 100 population 1 1990 indicator 2.3 Personal computers per 100 population 0.35 1990 Increasing (POSITIVE) indicator 2.4 Internet users per 100 population 0 1990 Increasing (POSITIVE) 5.32 2004 60.9 2004 Decreasing (NEGATIVE) 41 2006 target 3 indicator 3.1 Increasing (POSITIVE) Increasing (POSITIVE) 36.37 2004 44.01 2004 4.46 2004 Provide access to affordable essential drugs in cooperation with pharmaceutical industries Access to affordable essential drugs on a sustainable basis (decrease of prices of drugs) Analysis Based on the data and information shared above we think that there is a good possibility that the Millennium Development Goal #8, which is to develop a global partnership for development will reach its targets. This is seen in the chart that the only indicator for target 1 has been reached. Debt service as a percentage of exports of goods and services has decreased over the years from 27.2 percent in 1990 to 8.8 percent in 2010. This is seen as a good thing because due to the increase in the exports of goods and services, the debt service ratio, which measures how in debt someone or a country is decreasing. The decrease in the debt service ratio has a positive effect on the country thus a positive effect in helping other developing countries with their debt problems. Analysis Target 2’s four indicators have been reached. This is seen as a positive step for the Philippines. Due to the fact that there is a huge increase in telephone line and cellular subscribers per 100 population from 1 in 1990 to 44.01 in 2004. There is also an increase in the owners of personal computers per 100 population and internet users per 100 population having an increase of 0.35 to 4.46 from 1990 to 2004 and an increase of 0 to 5.32 from 1990 to 2004 respectively. This is seen as positive due to the fact that there is an increase of users of telephone lines, cellular subscribers, owners of personal computers and internet users. With that being said the 2nd target has been met by introducing new technologies, especially information and communications. This helps in achieving millennium development goal #8 because it is always important to have information and communication at the ready. With the introduction of new information and communications it will be easier to develop global partnerships and in return will develop the Philippines as well. CONTINUATION Though target 3’s only indicator which is the access of affordable essential drugs has not improved with a decrease of the reduction of drug prices from 60.9 in 2004 to 41 in 2006 it hardly affects the overall reaching of the MDG #8. Since there is only one indicator that has not been reached there is a good possibility that the MDG #8 will be made by 2015. Another reason why the MDG #8 will have a high possibility of being reached by 2015 is because of the many steps the government is taking to reach the targets and indicators. Due to the many fiscal and monitory policies of the government, our debt has decreased. To reach the last indicator which is access to affordable essential drugs the government has come up with Botika ng Bayan and Botika ng Barangay. These 2 steps will be able to help make indicator 3.1 reach and thus making all the indicators reach in the MDG #8. Because of the improvement already seen in the government and the steps the government is taking right now, there is a good possibility that the Philippines will be able to reach the Millennium Development Goal #8, develop a global partnership for development, by 2015.