Environmental Impact of Cotton Cultivation and Use in India

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Environmental Impact of Cotton
Cultivation and Use in India
Content

Background and Need

History of Cotton Production in India



Characteristics of Cotton Produced
Trade Scenario
Factors Affecting Cotton Production

Cotton Value Chain and Environmental Regulatory Framework in India

Environmental Impacts of Cotton Production in India

Way Forward
Background and Need


Cotton production contributes significantly to India’s economy

Cotton & Textiles account for 45% of all exports from India to the
EU (WWF, 2007)

Approximately 60 million people rely on cotton production and
related industries for livelihoods
Environmental sustainability issues are there in the entire
cotton value chain
Source: WWF,2007.<http://assets.panda.org/downloads/cotton_for_printing_long_report.pdf>
History of Cotton Production in India

A principal cash crop grown in India

Has the largest area, approximately 90 million hectares under
cotton cultivation

Until 2001, non-transgenic cotton seeds sown for cultivation

Since 2002, farmers began sowing transgenic cotton seeds as
well

Has emerged as the number one cotton exporter and the
number two cotton producer with the aid of technology
Characteristics of Cotton Produced in
India
Staple-wise Production of Cotton and Quantity in lakh bales of 170 kgs
Staple Group 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11
Short (below
20.0mm)
9
7.6
7.11
6.8
6
4
3.5
3.5
4
Medium/Mediu
m Long (20.5
to 27 mm)
72
75.9
136.8
64
54
61
60
57
62
Long Staple
(27.5 to 32.0
mm)
51
89.95
94.07
165.4
216.15
237
222
230
241
Extra Long
Staple (32.5
mm & Above)
4
5.55
5.02
4.8
3.85
5
4.5
4.5
5
Total
136
179
243
241
280
307
290
295
312
Source: Cotton Advisory Board for Quantity
Cotton growing Zones in India 2008-09
Adoption of Technology aided Cotton
in India
Cotton Hectarage, Production, and
Yield in India 2001-2009
Import and Export of Cotton in India
Factors Affecting Cotton Yield in India

Delayed Sowing

Monsoon Dependence

Poor Seed Quality

Plant Protection

Crop Management
Source: SINET.”Indian Cotton Textile Sector Network Report”.
Cotton Value Chain

Farmers & Harvesters

Ginners

Spinners

Weavers & Knitters

Manufacturers

Retailers
Environmental Regulatory Framework
in India (1)

Plant Protection against Pest and Diseases


use of pesticides acceptable to prevent cotton plants from
boll worm and other diseases
Water (Prevention & Control) ACT,1974

fresh water must not get contaminated with pesticides and
chemical fertilizers
Source: http://sjvn.nic.in/projects/environmental-regulations.pdf
Environmental Regulatory Framework
in India (2)

Wildlife Protection ACT, 1972

protection of “wildlife” that includes any animal, bees,
butterflies, crustaceans, fish and moths and aquatic or land
vegetation which forms part of any habitat

thus, beneficial insects must remain unharmed with the use
of pesticides
Source: http://sjvn.nic.in/projects/environmental-regulations.pdf
Environmental Regulatory Framework
in India (3)

Ozone Depleting Substances (Regulation and
Control) Rules, 2000

control and regulation imposed on manufacturing, import,
export, and use of ozone depleting substances

hence, dyeing and printing chemicals must be free of ozone
depleting substances
Source: http://sjvn.nic.in/projects/environmental-regulations.pdf
Major Environmental Issues (1)

Pest Management Issues

50% of all pesticides used in India go for cotton cultivation

Part of them drain into freshwater systems

Many species of beneficial insects, which help keep the insect/pest
population in place, are killed by the heavy utilisation of pesticides

Pesticides poisoning

FAO reports 383 cases of pesticide poisoning in Andhra Pradesh in
2001
Source: WWF,2007.<http://assets.panda.org/downloads/cotton_for_printing_long_report.pdf>
Major Environmental Issues (2)

Water Pollution & Management Issues

Pesticides contaminate fresh water availability

Unpredictable rainfall patterns have adversely affected rain-fed cotton
cultivation in India

Cotton farmers in India have relied on deep water drilling, resulting into
water scarcity

“In 2001, 22 of 23 districts in Andhra Pradesh were declared under drought,
affecting nearly two million hectares of cotton farmland and putting tremendous
stress on farmers” (WWF,2007)
Source: WWF,2007.<http://assets.panda.org/downloads/cotton_for_printing_long_report.pdf>
Major Environmental Issues (3)

Soil Pollution

Excessive use of pesticides and chemical
fertilizers resulting in low/fluctuating yield

Increased salinisation due to deep water drilling
resulting in low/fluctuating yield
Way Forward

India’s average yield of 567kg/ha is far below than
the United States average of 902 kg/ha

Hence, upgrading cotton farming practices is
essential to increase average yield per hectare

Increase irrigation facility

Use modern technology
Continued…

Better on-farm management

Ensure better seed quality

Avoid freshwater contamination from the use of pesticides
and chemical fertilizers

Limit soil contamination from the use of pesticides

Adopt better waste management practices
Thank You!
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