PowerPoint - School District of Clayton

Recognizing the importance of food safety
Understanding how food becomes unsafe
Identifying TCS Food
Recognizing the risk factors for foodborne
• Understanding important prevention
measures for keeping food safe
• Foodborne illness- a disease transmitted to
people by food
• Foodborne illness outbreak:
– when two or more people get the same illness after eating
the same food
– An investigation is conducted by state and local regulatory
– The outbreak is confirmed by
laboratory analysis.
• Each year millions of people
get sick from unsafe food
• A food service operation’s challenges include:
– Time: Pressure to work quickly can make it hard
to take the time to follow food safety practices.
– Language & Culture: staff may speak a different
language and may have cultural differences that
influence how they view food safety
– Literacy & Education: employees
have different levels of education,
which makes it more difficult to
teach them food safety.
– Pathogens: illness-causing microorganisms are more
frequently found on food that was once considered
safe (ex. Salmonella)
– Unapproved suppliers: Food that is received from
suppliers that are not practicing food safety.
– High risk customers: The number of customers at high
risk for getting a foodborne illness is increasing.
– Staff turnover: Training new staff
– Leaves less time for food
safety training.
• National Restaurant Association figures show that
one foodborne-illness outbreak can cost an
operation thousands of dollars and even result in
closure. From:
• Most important are the human costs. Victims
of foodborne illnesses may experience the
– Lost work
– Medical costs and
long-term disability
– Death
• To prevent foodborne illness, you must recognize
the hazards that can make food unsafe:
Certain unsafe practices
• Most of these hazards can be controlled by
focusing on personal hygiene, time &
temperature control, and cross contamination.
• Contamination: the presence of harmful
substances in the food
• Potential hazards to food safety are divided
into three categories
– Biological
– Chemical
– Physical
• Pathogens are the greatest threat to food
• They include viruses, parasites, fungi, and
• Some plants, mushrooms, and
seafood that carry harmful toxins
(poisons) are also included
in this group.
• Foodservice chemicals can contaminate food if
they are used incorrectly.
• This group also includes
cleaners, sanitizers,
polishes, machine
lubricants, and toxic
metals that leach from
cookware into food.
• Foreign objects like hair, dirt, bandages, metal
staples, or broken glass can get into food.
• Naturally occurring objects,
like fish bones in fillets,
are also physical hazards.
• The Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention (CDC)has indentified the five most
common risk factors that cause foodborne
– Purchasing food from unsafe sources
– Failing to cook food adequately
– Holding food at incorrect temperatures
– Using contaminated equipment
– Practicing poor hygiene
• Food has been time-temperature abused when it
has stayed too long at temperatures that are
good for growth of pathogens. A foodborne
illness can result if food is time-temperature
abused, which can happen in many ways:
• Food is not held or stored at the right
• Food is not cooked or reheated enough to kill
• Food is not cooled the right way
• Pathogens can be transferred from one surface or
food to another. Cross-contamination can cause
a foodborne illness in many ways:
– Contaminated ingredients are added to food that
receives no further cooking
– Ready-to-eat food touches contaminated surfaces
– Contaminated food touches or drips fluids onto
cooked or ready-to-eat food
– A foodhandler touches contaminated food
and then touches ready-to-eat food
– Contaminated cleaning towels touch
food-contact surfaces
• Foodhandlers can cause a food borne illness if
they do any of the following actions:
– Fail to wash their hands the right way after using
the restroom or after any time their hands get
– Come to work while sick
– Cough or sneeze on food
– Touch or scratch wounds, and
then touch food
• Focus on:
– Controlling time & temperature
– Preventing cross contamination
– Practicing personal
– Purchasing from
approved reputable
• TCS Food: food requiring time and
temperature control for safety.
• The next few slides have foods that are
considered TCS foods and need time and
temperature control to limit the growth of
• Milk & Dairy Products
• Meat: beef, pork and lamb
• Fish
• Baked Potatoes
• Tofu or other soy protein
• Synthetic ingredients such as textured soy
protein in meat alternatives
• Sliced Melon
• Cut Tomatoes
• Cut Leafy Vegetables
• Shell Eggs
• Poultry
• Shellfish and crustaceans
• Heat treated plant food, such
as cooked rice, beans and vegetables
• Sprouts and sprout seeds
• Untreated garlic-and-oil mixtures
• What is wrong with the following situations:
time-temperature abuse, poor personal
hygiene, or cross contamination
1) A package of raw chicken breasts is left out at
room temperature.
2) A foodhandler sneezes on a salad.
3) A foodhandler cooks a rare hamburger.
4) A foodhandler scratches a cut, and then
continues to make a sandwhich.
• What is wrong with the following situations:
time-temperature abuse, poor personal
hygiene, or cross contamination
5) A foodhandler leaves the restroom without
washing their hands.
6) A foodhandler cuts up raw chicken. He then
uses the same knife to chop carrots for a salad.
• Elderly People
– People’s immune systems weaken with age.
The immune system is the body’s defense
against illness.
• Preschool age children
– Very young children have not built up strong
immune systems
• Other populations
– People with cancer or on chemotherapy
– People with HIV/AIDS
– Transplant recipients
40 year old man
2 year old girl
22 year old man on
40 year old man on blood
pressure medication
26 year old transplant recipient
70 year old man
16 year old girl
• As a food safety manager it is your job to train
your staff is the food safety procedures.
• Staff should be trained when they are first hired
and on an ongoing basis.
• Your entire staff needs general food safety
knowledge. Other knowledge will be specific to
the tasks performed on the job.
• Staff need to be retrained in food safety regularly.
• Monitor those trained after training.
• Several government agencies take leading
roles in the prevention of foodborne illness in
the U.S.
• The FDA inspects all food except meat, poultry
and eggs.
• The agency also regulates food transported
across state lines.
• In addition, the FDA issues a Model Food
Code. This science-based code provides
recommendations for food safety regulations.
• The Model Food Code was created for city, country,
state and tribal agencies. These agencies regulate
foodservice for the following groups:
Restaurants and retail food stores
Vending operations
Schools and day care centers
Hospital and nursing homes
• Although the FDA recommends that states adopt the
Model Food Code, it cannot require it. The FDA also
provides technical support and training. This is
available for industry and regulatory agencies.
• The USDA regulates and inspects meat,
poultry, and eggs.
• The USDA also regulates
food that crosses state
boundaries or involves
more than one state.
• The Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention and the U.S. Public Health Services
help assist the FDA, and local and state health
• They conduct research into the causes of
foodborne-illness outbreaks.
• They also assist in
investigating outbreaks.
• Regulatory authorities writes or adapt code
that regulates retail and foodservice
• Codes may differ from the FDA Model Food
Code, because these agencies are not
required to adopt it.
• Regulatory authorities have many
responsibilities. Here are some of the
responsibilities related to food safety:
– Inspecting operations
– Enforcing regulations
– Investigating complaints and illnesses
– Issuing licenses and permits
– Approving construction
– Reviewing and approving HACCP plans
• Individually, read
the case study on
page 1.11
• As a table,
answer number 1
& 2 on one piece
of paper.
1) Why are preschool-age children at a higher
risk for foodborne illnesses?
a) They have not built up strong immune systems.
b) They are more likely to spend time in a hospital.
c) They are more likely to suffer allergic reactions.
d) Their appetites have increased since birth.
2) Which is a TCS food?
a) Bread
b) Flour
c) Sprouts
d) Strawberries
3) The 5 common mistakes that can lead to
foodborne illness are failing to cook food
adequately, holding food at incorrect
temperatures, using contaminated equipment,
practicing poor personal hygiene, and
reheating leftover food.
serving ready-to-eat food.
using single-use, disposable food.
purchasing food from unsafe sources.
4) What is an important measure for preventing
foodborne illness?
a) Serving locally grown food.
b) Using new equipment
c) Measuring pathogens
d) Controlling time and temperature
5) Raw chicken breasts are left out at room
temperature on a prep table. What is the
risk that could cause a foodborne illness?
a) Cross contamination
b) Poor cleaning and sanitizing
c) Poor personal hygiene
d) Time-temperature abuse
6) A server cleans a dining table with a wiping
cloth and then puts the cloth in an apron
pocket. What is the risk that could cause a
foodborne illness?
a) Cross contamination
b) Poor cleaning and sanitizing
c) Poor personal hygiene
d) Time-temperature abuse