Peru : Clean Processes and Technologies to support Small Industries

advertisement
2011-APEC SME Green Innovation Conference
April 19-20 , Seoul-Korea
Peru : Clean Processes and Technologies to
support Small Industries.
Adriana Ríos
Executive Director
CITEccal
April 2011
Gross Domestic Product of Perú
(US$ millions)
Source: Central Reserve Bank of Peru
Factors that contribute to the
Competitiveness
ASSETS:
•GDP growth 2009
•Natural Resources and Mega
biodiversity
•Boom of exports
•Geographic position
•Inflation rates (less than 1%
month).
LIABILITIES:
•Unemployment and poverty
•Highly atomized businesses
•Low Productivity levels
Collection Stage
Where is Perú in technological process?
2nd Industrial
Revolution
1st Industrial
Revolution
Agriculture
Strategic
factor
Competitive
advantage
Technology
Information
and
Knowledge
Intelectual
Capital
Machines
Land
Manufacturing
Mindfacturin
Biotechnology,
Nanotechnology
PERUVIAN SMEs
Micro Enterprises
Con
Less than 5
persons
95,38%
Between 5
10
persons
2,27%
More than
10 persons.
2,34%
DEFINITION
• Micro: 15 workers
• US$165,000
• Small: 50 workers
• US$465,000
General Information
• 97.65% are SMEs
• SMEs represent 74% of
national employment
• Low productivity
• Low added value
• 60% subemployment
Formal Peruvian SME are mostly dedicated to retail and
wholesale activities.
Distribution of Peruvian SMEs by Sector
Agriculture
4,5%
Manufacture
6,4%
Services
34,4%
Source: SUNAT, 2001
Building Others
1,3% Otros
0,5%
Retail and
Wholesale
52,9%
Peruvian SMEs face a number of problems:
Informality
Underqualified
Employees
Low managerial
capabilities
Insufficient
Information
Lack of
cooperation
Low
productivity
Low competitiveness
Low profitability
Inadequate use
of technology
Financing
problems
The Future:
An Industrial Policy oriented to an Added Value
Export Model
• Competitiveness and innovation culture.
• Investment and technology.
• Improving quality, management and innovation capability
to access markets.
• Environmental management .
• Management skills.
Strategic agreements
• National Agreement: 31 Policies of State
19.- Sustainable development and environmental
management.
20.- Development of science and technology
www.acuerdonacional.gob.pe
Ministry of Production
Instruments to promote innovation:
•Funds for Innovation (FIDECOM).
•Network of Technological Innovation Centers
(RED CITEs).
Innovate Perú, FIDECOM
• Research and
Development Fund for
Competitiveness.
• It is a competitive fund
(70 millions US$) and
aims to co-finance up to
75% of the projects
submitted by SMEs.
• The range of cofinancing is from
100,000 to 300,000 US$
per project.
• The fund started
operations one year
ago.
http://www.innovateperu.pe/
Innovation Technological Centers - CITEs
• Purpose: Access to technology and promote innovation
• Market driven.
• Promote regional development, productive chains and competitive
clusters.
• Agents of Technological Transference between enterprises and R&D
institutions.
• Active presence of the private sector in its conception and
direction.
• Integrated in a NETWORK - RED de CITEs.
• Consolidation of the Network of CITEs Project – PRORED.
http://www.cites.pe/cites/
Network of CITEs according to
the descentralization process
Iquitos:
Piura:
CITEAgroindustrial
CITEfrutas tropicales
y plantas medicinales.
CITEforestal
Lima:
Pucallpa:
CITEmadera: Mueble
CITEccal: Cuero-Calzado
CITE Logística GS1
CITEsoftware
CITEconfecciones y diseño
U.T CITEmadera
Ica: CITEvidArequipa: CITEconfecciones El Taller,
CITEagrondustrial CEPRORUI
CITEtextil camélidos IPAC
CITElagroalimentario
Tacna: CITEagroindustrial
Innovation Technological Centers - CITEs
• Provide services to SMEs :
 Training
 Technical Advice
 Information (trends, fashion, technology)
 Laboratory services for quality control
 Design and development of products.
 Pilot Plants to demonstrate processes
 Research and development (in partnership
with universities).
Role and Services of CITEs
Lab testing
Promote the
use of
standards
R&D+i
projects
Enterprise
Product
development
Logistics management and ITC
Value Chain
Quality System
Training
Pilot Plants
Technical
Assistance
Technical
information and
Technological
watch
M
A
R
K
E
T
Technological
Transfer
Productivity and
Quality
improvement
R&D+i
Innovation
Technical Standards promotion:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Wood and furniture (CITEmadera).
Footwear and leather (CITEccal).
Pisco, wine, wineyard and grape.(CITEvid).
Alpaca fiber - textile (CITEtextil de camélidos IPAC)Arequipa.
Mangoes(CITEagroindustrial – Piura)
Algarrobina (CITEagroindustrial – Piura)
Olive and olive oil (CITEagroindustrial Tacna)
Camu camu (CITE frutas tropicales y Plantas medicinales de
Loreto) fruits and pulp from Camu-camu.
Pallets y logistics (CITE Logística GS1 Perú).
R&D+i standards (OTCITs).
CITEs Labs: Applying Standard
ISO/IEC 17025
“this standard is used by laboratories in
their management system for quality,
administrative and technical operations”
Technological Services of CITEccal
Pattern
Technical Information
and fashion trends
Laboratory testing for quality
control
Training in footwear and tannery
3D Design
Technical Advice
scaling of patterns by computer
Quality System Implementation
(Standard ISO/IEC 17025) in 5 CITEs laboratories.
Selected Laboratories:
•CITEccal-Lima.
•CITEvid-Ica (wine, pisco
and grapes).
•CITEagroindustry- Piura.
•CITEagroindustry- Tacna.
•CITEmadera (wood and
furniture).
CITEccal: Innovation technological center for leather,
footwear and related.
•Accredited under
ISO/IEC 17025, february
2011. (General requirements
for the competence of testing
and calibration laboratories)
• Inter-laboratory proficiency
test with:
– INESCOP of Spain
– CIATEC of México
– SENAI- CETEPO of
Brasil
CITEccal gives support to tannery
manufacturers
• Leather tanning is the process of
converting raw hides or skins into leather.
• The SMEs of tannery industry in Perú
need to improve their processes,
technology, and knowledge to make a
clean tannery.
Tannery Industry: The process
Unhairing
Skin
Tanning
Pollution 70%-80%
Effluents
Solid waste
Wastewater
Air emissions
RTE: Retanning, dyeing and grease
Finishes
Pollution 20%-30%
Solid waste
Air emissions
Peruvian Tanning Industry
• The footwear and leather industry constitutes and important
industrial sector in Peru, employing more than 100,000
people. There are around 150 formal tanneries in Perú and it
is estimated that there is a similar number of informal
tanneries.
• For most of the tanneries the drainage system is not always
adequate for the large amount of effluents. There are also
some tanneries that throw their effluents directly in
superficial waters.
• Furthermore the poor environmental standards in the tanning
industry encourage the overuse of chemicals, which tend to
increase the quality of waste coming from the leather
industry.
Peruvian Tanning Industry
• The tanning industry in the Peruvian sector suffers from
complex problems associated with:
• Poor applied technologies in tanning processes
• Lack of environmental awareness
• Untrained workers
• Huge generated amounts of wastes due to inefficient use of
resources
• Low export levels due to non-compliance with environmental
requirements
• Limited investment in the sector
Trends in leather manufacturing
Nowadays, leather manufacturers are under pressure
from competence and while having to meet higher
environmental standards to satisfy authorities
regulations and the market itself:
• Environmentally friendly products.
• Metal-free or low levels of cadmium, mercury,
lead, chromium VI, etc.
• Use biodegradable ingredients.
• Sophisticated products.
CITEccal Project to help tanneries to reduce pollution
by clean technologies in the Pilot Plant
• In 2006 CITEccal developed a project to demonstrate and
promote the use of clean technologies in the Peruvian
tanneries creating a tanning pilot plant and a wastewater
pre-treatment pilot plant. Some tests to measure
important parameters of water were implemented at the
laboratory to complement the project.
• Other aims consisted in raising awareness on the needs
and benefits of implementing environmental processes in
the tanning production methods and overcoming all the
problems related to environmental compliances,
awareness raising and improving productivity.
CITEccalTanning Pilot Plant
• To research and
develop high added
value leathers
Desarrollo de productos
innovadores
Reducción de
contaminantes en el
proceso de curtido
Appropriate technologies to prevent
contamination:
• Since then, CITEccal has been teaching Peruvian tanneries
more about environmental technologies related to tanning
processes with the aim of introducing improvements within
the sector through applying cleaner production techniques for:
reducing water consumption, reducing salinity in wastewater,
reducing generated amounts of wastewater and of solid
wastes, recovering and recycling of the rejected materials and
wastes, optimising the use of chemicals, substituting toxic
materials and reducing toxic emissions and by-products
valuation.
• The application of these CP techniques have lead to both
environmental and economical benefits.
Processes to prevent pollution
Recycling and treatment of
wastewater from unhairing:
recovering hair instead of
disolving it
Catalytic oxidation and aeration pool
Solids separation
Precipitation
tank
Sedimentation
Acids wastewater pre-treatment: Chromium
Chromium
precipitation by
using lime
Results
• Production costs minimization;
• Quality improvement;
• Applying new technologies in tanning and
finishing processes;
• Establishing new markets for Peruvian products;
• Increasing added value;
• Increasing productivity;
• Help and advice to get Certification through
environmental compliance;
Thanks for your attention
and if you go to Lima, Peru,
please contact us.
We are in 1300 Caquetá Ave. District of Rímac,
Lima, Perú
Our Phones: (51-1) 3820115 - (51-1) 4825870
email: [email protected]
web: www.citeccal.com.pe
Thanks!
OTCIT
Vice Ministry of SME and
Industry
2011 April
Download