2002 SCBA Emergency Operations

Annual Respiratory
Refresher Course
Provided by:
Maple Valley Fire Department
1. Why a SCBA is necessary?
2. What are the limitations –
equipment, environment & user?
3. Maintenance & Use
4. Emergency situations - failure
5. Knowledge of policy
Respiratory Protection Program
• Mandated by Labor and Industries
• Upheld by Maple Valley Fire Policies
• Medical Questionnaire/Doctor Review at
time of hire
• Annual Fit Testing
• Mandatory Quarterly Training Programs
• SCBA Maintenance
WAC 296-305-04001
Respiratory Equipment
• Respirators shall be provided for, and
shall be used by , all personnel working
in areas where:
– The atmosphere is hazardous
– The atmosphere is suspected of being
hazardous, or
– The atmosphere may rapidly become
SCBA Mandatory use
1. All Fire Department Personnel shall wear
SCBA when operating in any of the following
a. Any IDLH atmosphere.
b. An oxygen rich or deficient atmosphere.
(Under 19.5%, Over 23.5% oxygen)
c. An atmosphere of particulate, gas or
vapor contaminants. ie: asbestos, CO,
SCBA Mandatory use
d. In any permit-required confined space
that has not been tested and monitored
to establish respiratory safety.
e. Any possible signs of WMD event.
Gross Decon shall be performed
prior to removal of face piece.
SCBA Mandatory use
2. SCBA shall be used by all personnel
who enter into hazardous atmospheres
during structural firefighting activities
or other IDLH or potential IDLH
atmospheres, including:
a. In an active fire area.
b. Directly above a fire area.
(vertical ventilation)
c. Directly under the active area.
d. In potential explosive or fire area,
including gas leaks or fuel spills.
SCBA Mandatory use
e. Where products of combustion are visible
in an atmosphere, including vehicle fires
and dumpster fires.
f. Where invisible contaminants are present
or suspected. This includes the
overhaul stage of a fire.
g. Where toxic products are present,
suspected of being present, or may be
released without prior warning.
h. In an active chemical spill area where the
chemical presents an inhalation hazard.
SCBA Mandatory use
• SCBA use is mandatory if you are working
in atmospheres where CO, HCN and other
toxic gasses are suspected to be above
safe levels.
• Fiberglass dust and other particles in the
air, or suspected in the air, require SCBA
APR, P100 and N95 use
Employees shall wear respiratory protection
when transporting an individual with
suspected or confirmed infectious
tuberculosis or meningococcal bacterium or
other infectious air borne illness, (H5N1,
H1N1) even if individual is masked.
Neither P100 nor N95 may
be used for overhaul.
10 second seal check
• WAC 296-842-22020 states: Prior to each
use the unit must be checked to ensure
that a proper seal is achieved. A 10
second negative pressure seal check is
• The best way to do this is with your 2nd
stage regulator.
• New for Maple Valley
Hazardous atmospheres members
may be exposed to during Routine
and Emergency Operations:
• Oxygen deficient
• Aerosols
• Gaseous
• Elevated temperatures
• Flashover
• Irritant particles
• Toxic gases
•Overhaul operations
SCBA Cleaning
• Leave the Bottle on pack to prevent water
from getting into the reducer.
Make sure Regulator Air Saver Switch is
Activated (if left on the pack)
Rinse off large debris
Use a Brush, Mild Soap and Water to clean
Rinse thoroughly
Complete a Pack Check to verify operation
Return to service on apparatus
Cleaning the Regulator
• Remove the Regulator from the Pack
• Close Air Saver Switch on regulator
• Spray Westcodyne Plus Cleaning solution inside
regulator opening and swirl around
DO NOT get solution or water into the hose
DO NOT submerge regulator in bucket of water
Rinse thoroughly with running water
Allow to Air Dry
– If unable to air dry, purge air through the regulator
prior to using
• Return regulator to its appropriate pack
Cleaning the Face Piece
• Remove all Electronics (i.e. – Voice Amplifiers)
• Clean off large debris
• Spray Westcodyne Plus Cleaning Solution onto
mask (Inside and Outside)
Allow to sit for approximately 10 minutes
Rinse thoroughly with water
Allow to Air Dry
Re-attach Electronics
User Limitations
• Physical condition – maximize work effort
• Agility – restrictive movements
• Facial Features – seal issues
• Contact Lenses – otherwise glasses inserts
are provided
• Respiratory – any smokers?
• Mental – training, confidence, “cool”
Equipment Limitations
• Limited visibility – peripheral vision is
reduced, fogging
• Communication – failures of lapel mics,
amplifiers not turned on.
• Weight – 25-35 extra pounds
• Mobility – backpack and straps reduce
ability to move freely
• Equipment malfunction – Know what to
do if your equipment suddenly malfunctions
Environmental Limitations
• Cold Weather – water spray from fire
fighting activities can cause SCBA to freeze
up and not function properly.
• Chemicals – while the SCBA protects your
respiratory system, many chemicals are
absorbed through your skin. DECON.
• Extreme Heat – Elevated temperatures
such as flashover may damage SCBA
beyond use.
Air Supply Limitations
• “30 minute” bottle = 45 cubic feet, 20 –
25 minutes working time.
• “45 minute” bottle = 66 cubic feet, less
than 40 minutes working time.
• “1 hour” bottle = 88 cubic feet, less than 45
minutes working time. (Haz-Mat & RIT/RIC)
• SABA – Supplied Air Breathing Apparatus for
Confined Space rescue, has 10 or15 minute
escape pack
Level 1 damage:
OK to continue using.
Level 2 damage:
Circle damage with permanent
marker and send in for repair.
(Station 81)
Level 3 damage:
Not repairable.
Must be taken out of service.
(Mark bottle and send to Station 81)
Carrier and
Second Stage Regulator
Secondary Alarm
Vibralert is internal to the Mask Mounted
Vibralert activates at 25% of service pressure
remaining - approximately 1,125 psi
SEMS Console
SEMS – Scott Electronic Monitoring System
All Gauges should read within 5% of
each other.
Place out-of-service if difference is
+/- 225 psi.
Heads-Up Display
¾ to Full Bottle - Continuous
½ to ¾ Bottle - Continuous
¼ to ½ bottle – Slow Flash
¼ or Less – Rapidly Flashing
Low Battery Warning Light
- An audible chirp every 3 – 5 Seconds should
be heard also
Universal Rescue Connection
STFD has only
chest URC.
1 Hour Bottle
Buddy Breather Hose
Transfill Hose
Spare Mask
w/ MMR
RIT Command Board
75’ Rope Bag
More WAC
• “Firefighters shall be thoroughly trained in
accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions
on emergency procedures such as use of
regulator purge valve, corrective action for face
piece damage, and breathing directly from the
The manufacture provides minimal emergency
Nobody wants to accept liability!
More “WAC”y Stuff
• “Firefighters using a properly functioning
SCBA shall not compromise the protective
integrity of the SCBA by removing the face
mask, for any reason, in a hazardous
atmosphere or in atmospheres where the
quality of air is unknown.”
We’re talking about IMPROPERLY
functioning SCBAs!
Guess What?
• “You’re on your own”
• Most SCBA emergency
procedures are not
listed or approved by
any regulatory agency!
• IFSTA says follow SOPs
Probable Failures
• Mask Failure
– Torn straps/Lens fracture
• Air Pack failure
First Stage (primary/secondary)
Mask Mounted Regulator
Low pressure hoses/connections
Gauge failures
• Bottle Failure
– Blown burst disc
BOTTLE IS TURNED ON! Don’t let this happen at the
front door!
So, you’ve had a failure!
• Who are you going to tell?
– EVERYONE! History tells us we don’t!
– Not communicating will get you DEAD!
– Advise your Crew and the Incident Command
• Communicate a “Mayday, Mayday, Mayday”
• Give your current/last known location and
your PLAN (problem, location, air, needs)
• If you can’t communicate, use the “EMER”
Button and PASS device
• If you aren’t able to fix it, all you can do is
deal with it:
Mask Failure
• Try re-adjusting/tightening the mask
– Broken strap, hold the mask in place to maintain a
• Other small leaks may be plugged with a hand
• Lens is gone!
– You’re going to breathe smoke.
• Bottle will empty in under 2 minutes.
• Conserve air by pressing the air saver switch
– Breathe off the regulator
• Air flows out of the top spray bar on the MMR regulator
• Use the Purge Valve and breathe off the MMR regulator
Air Pack Failure
• Low Air Pressure – Vibralert Activation
– Communicate the problem, your location and your
action plan
– Get outside the IDLH atmosphere (if possible)
– If not, get to a safe location and stop moving
• Air Conservation is critical at this point
• Use breathing techniques to conserve air
– Use the Buddy Breathing System
• This will be described in detail later
– Use the RIT transfill System
• This also will be described in detail later
Air Pack Failure
First Stage Regulator
• Scott Air packs have two first stage regulators.
– Redundancy for your safety
– Highly unlikely to have a complete first stage failure
with this type of system
• Primary first stage failure – Fail Closed
– Vibralert will activate even with a full cylinder
– If this happens, exit the IDLH atmosphere
• Secondary first stage failure – Fail Closed
– Reverts back to the primary first stage regulator
**NOTE** Vibralert will not function if this happens
Air Pack Failure
First Stage Regulator
• First Stage regulator failure – Fail Open
– Pressure will exceed the pressure relief system
– Pressure relief will bleed off excess pressure to the
– Regulator will still provide air
• Between breathes, air will be wasted
• Bottle will bleed down rapidly
• Conserve air by shutting off the bottle
– Control air flow by opening/shutting the bottle valve
Air Pack Failure
Mask Mounted Regulator
• Regulator does not reset after a breath is taken.
– Make sure mask isn’t leaking.
• Try re-setting the Air Saver Switch to the off position
– Will not reset if the diaphragm is damaged.
• Unrestricted free flow can drain a bottle in 2 minutes!
Can you get out in 2 minutes?
Turn the purge valve all the way on and shut the bottle
down to a point to maintain a usable air flow for the
If the MMR regulator won’t control it, USE THE BOTTLE
What to do if Regulators don’t
provide air?
Don’t Panic! Don’t remove mask!
Check the bottle valve and pressure next
Try using the purge valve
– Don’t leave open, excess air will blow out exhalation valve
• Quick Fill (RIT Pack)
• Buddy Breathe
• Filter breathe by placing a glove in the mask
– Remember, fire gases will create disorientation and cause you
not to think clearly.
• Bottle Breathe
Quick Filling
• Find the RIC Connection
– Located within 4” of the bottle
opening on all packs manufactured
after 2002
Remove the dust cover
Connect the RIT pack connection
Ensure both bottle valves are open
Transfill air from the RIT pack to
the air pack
**Remember, if the regulators do
not provide air, the quick fill option
will not do any good**
Buddy Breathing
• Use the buddy breather
connections to connect two
packs together
– Packs must remain together until
after exiting the IDLH atmosphere
– Pack with the highest regulated air
is used first
– May not be functional if the first
stage regulator has failed
• Connect the MMR from one pack
to the buddy breather connection
– Connection must remain until after
exiting the IDLH environment
– May not be functional if the MMR
has failed
Don’t have a Buddy?
• Big Time Emergency
• If the mask is broken (mass leakage)
and/or your regulator won’t give you any
– Time to breathe off the bottle
– Danger! Up to 4500 lbs air pressure
– Make a funnel with your hand around bottle
valve, pass air through hand, and direct the
air flow into the mask opening.
• Control the air flow with the bottle valve
EMER Button
• Use EMER only if you can’t communicate on
any other frequency
EMER radio switches to EMER frequency, gives
short medium pitch tone, reads “Emergency”,
gets assigned repeater
Dispatch will try to contact EMER radio
IC should try to contact EMER radio
Reset by turning off and on
Does not work on site trunked channels and
State Ops channels
What can YOU do to minimize
• Proper, thorough, and vigilant maintenance
and inspections!
• Find the problem during your daily and
weekly checks rather than on the fire
• Give your pack a thorough inspection after
each use
– don’t put it back and assume it still works fine.
– Fire ground environments are hard on
Helpful Hints
• Open your SCBA
bottle while the pack
is still in the
Most air pack failures
occur when the bottle
is opened and the
lines are charged
More Hints
• Better to find a pack failure at the rig,
rather than at the front door!
• Keep your gear clean-most failures occur
as a result of improper cleaning
• Check for a seal on your mask with a
gentle inhale-a hard breath will seal any
mask to your face
Daily Checks
Face Mask
• Ensure the mask is in good condition
the Lens/Lens ring for fractures
the straps for elasticity and damage
the Mask seal for cracking
the strap connectors for damage
that the one way valves are in place
for damage to speaking diaphragms
• Nose cup should be properly in place
• Clean the mask regularly
• Make sure the mask fits and seals properly
Daily Checks
Air Pack
• Pressurize the pack
Verify that there are no air leaks!
Does the vibralert activate on the way up?
Do all pressure gauges read within 200 lbs?
Are the electronics working properly?
Did it activate on the first breath?
Actuate the purge valve to ensure proper operation.
Does it provide the appropriate amount of air?
Does the vibralert activate at 25% bottle pressure?
Do the electronics work appropriately?
• Breathe off the regulator
Daily Checks
Air Pack, (cont.)
• Verify all dust covers are in place and in good
– Dust Cover locations are:
• Battery compartment, RIT Connection and Buddy Breather
• Straps are in-service and ready for the next user
• Bottle is at 4500psi (no less then 4000psi)
• Ensure the air pack is properly secured in the
• WAC says you have to wear a SCBA in a
hazardous atmospheres
Emergency procedures are designed to prepare
for the unexpected problems
Emergency procedures must be performed often
to make them second nature
– Remember, thinking won’t be as clear in these
• Regular inspections and maintenance detects
failures early
Emergency Procedures
Quick Communication
Check bottle valve and pressure
Try the purge valve
Quick fill with RIT pack
Buddy Breathe
Breathe off of the regulator
Breathe off of the bottle
Filter Breathe (last resort)
Most importantly