2011 Annual Respiratory Refresher Course Provided by: Maple Valley Fire Department Objectives: 1. Why a SCBA is necessary? 2. What are the limitations – equipment, environment & user? 3. Maintenance & Use 4. Emergency situations - failure 5. Knowledge of policy Respiratory Protection Program • Mandated by Labor and Industries • Upheld by Maple Valley Fire Policies • Medical Questionnaire/Doctor Review at time of hire • Annual Fit Testing • Mandatory Quarterly Training Programs • SCBA Maintenance WAC 296-305-04001 Respiratory Equipment • Respirators shall be provided for, and shall be used by , all personnel working in areas where: – The atmosphere is hazardous – The atmosphere is suspected of being hazardous, or – The atmosphere may rapidly become hazardous SCBA Mandatory use 1. All Fire Department Personnel shall wear SCBA when operating in any of the following atmospheres. a. Any IDLH atmosphere. b. An oxygen rich or deficient atmosphere. (Under 19.5%, Over 23.5% oxygen) c. An atmosphere of particulate, gas or vapor contaminants. ie: asbestos, CO, HCN SCBA Mandatory use d. In any permit-required confined space that has not been tested and monitored to establish respiratory safety. e. Any possible signs of WMD event. Gross Decon shall be performed prior to removal of face piece. SCBA Mandatory use 2. SCBA shall be used by all personnel who enter into hazardous atmospheres during structural firefighting activities or other IDLH or potential IDLH atmospheres, including: a. In an active fire area. b. Directly above a fire area. (vertical ventilation) c. Directly under the active area. d. In potential explosive or fire area, including gas leaks or fuel spills. SCBA Mandatory use e. Where products of combustion are visible in an atmosphere, including vehicle fires and dumpster fires. f. Where invisible contaminants are present or suspected. This includes the overhaul stage of a fire. g. Where toxic products are present, suspected of being present, or may be released without prior warning. h. In an active chemical spill area where the chemical presents an inhalation hazard. SCBA Mandatory use • SCBA use is mandatory if you are working in atmospheres where CO, HCN and other toxic gasses are suspected to be above safe levels. • Fiberglass dust and other particles in the air, or suspected in the air, require SCBA use. APR, P100 and N95 use Employees shall wear respiratory protection when transporting an individual with suspected or confirmed infectious tuberculosis or meningococcal bacterium or other infectious air borne illness, (H5N1, H1N1) even if individual is masked. Neither P100 nor N95 may be used for overhaul. 10 second seal check • WAC 296-842-22020 states: Prior to each use the unit must be checked to ensure that a proper seal is achieved. A 10 second negative pressure seal check is required. • The best way to do this is with your 2nd stage regulator. • New for Maple Valley Hazardous atmospheres members may be exposed to during Routine and Emergency Operations: • Oxygen deficient • Aerosols • Gaseous • Elevated temperatures • Flashover • Irritant particles • Toxic gases •Unknown •Overhaul operations SCBA Cleaning • Leave the Bottle on pack to prevent water • • • • • • from getting into the reducer. Make sure Regulator Air Saver Switch is Activated (if left on the pack) Rinse off large debris Use a Brush, Mild Soap and Water to clean Rinse thoroughly Complete a Pack Check to verify operation Return to service on apparatus Cleaning the Regulator • Remove the Regulator from the Pack • Close Air Saver Switch on regulator • Spray Westcodyne Plus Cleaning solution inside • • • • regulator opening and swirl around DO NOT get solution or water into the hose DO NOT submerge regulator in bucket of water Rinse thoroughly with running water Allow to Air Dry – If unable to air dry, purge air through the regulator prior to using • Return regulator to its appropriate pack Cleaning the Face Piece • Remove all Electronics (i.e. – Voice Amplifiers) • Clean off large debris • Spray Westcodyne Plus Cleaning Solution onto • • • • mask (Inside and Outside) Allow to sit for approximately 10 minutes Rinse thoroughly with water Allow to Air Dry Re-attach Electronics User Limitations • Physical condition – maximize work effort • Agility – restrictive movements • Facial Features – seal issues • Contact Lenses – otherwise glasses inserts are provided • Respiratory – any smokers? • Mental – training, confidence, “cool” Equipment Limitations • Limited visibility – peripheral vision is reduced, fogging • Communication – failures of lapel mics, amplifiers not turned on. • Weight – 25-35 extra pounds • Mobility – backpack and straps reduce ability to move freely • Equipment malfunction – Know what to do if your equipment suddenly malfunctions Environmental Limitations • Cold Weather – water spray from fire fighting activities can cause SCBA to freeze up and not function properly. • Chemicals – while the SCBA protects your respiratory system, many chemicals are absorbed through your skin. DECON. • Extreme Heat – Elevated temperatures such as flashover may damage SCBA beyond use. Air Supply Limitations • “30 minute” bottle = 45 cubic feet, 20 – 25 minutes working time. • “45 minute” bottle = 66 cubic feet, less than 40 minutes working time. • “1 hour” bottle = 88 cubic feet, less than 45 minutes working time. (Haz-Mat & RIT/RIC) • SABA – Supplied Air Breathing Apparatus for Confined Space rescue, has 10 or15 minute escape pack AIR CYLINDER Level 1 damage: OK to continue using. Level 2 damage: Circle damage with permanent marker and send in for repair. (Station 81) Level 3 damage: Not repairable. Must be taken out of service. (Mark bottle and send to Station 81) Carrier and Harness FIRST STAGE REGULATOR Second Stage Regulator Secondary Alarm Vibralert Vibralert is internal to the Mask Mounted Regulator Vibralert activates at 25% of service pressure remaining - approximately 1,125 psi SEMS Console SEMS – Scott Electronic Monitoring System All Gauges should read within 5% of each other. Place out-of-service if difference is +/- 225 psi. Heads-Up Display (HUD) HUD DISPLAY ¾ to Full Bottle - Continuous ½ to ¾ Bottle - Continuous ¼ to ½ bottle – Slow Flash ¼ or Less – Rapidly Flashing Low Battery Warning Light - An audible chirp every 3 – 5 Seconds should be heard also URC Universal Rescue Connection NXG2 URC Connection MSA URC Connection STFD has only chest URC. RIT Bag 1 Hour Bottle Buddy Breather Hose Transfill Hose Spare Mask w/ MMR RIT Command Board 75’ Rope Bag More WAC • “Firefighters shall be thoroughly trained in • accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions on emergency procedures such as use of regulator purge valve, corrective action for face piece damage, and breathing directly from the regulator.” The manufacture provides minimal emergency procedures. Nobody wants to accept liability! More “WAC”y Stuff • “Firefighters using a properly functioning SCBA shall not compromise the protective integrity of the SCBA by removing the face mask, for any reason, in a hazardous atmosphere or in atmospheres where the quality of air is unknown.” We’re talking about IMPROPERLY functioning SCBAs! Guess What? • “You’re on your own” • Most SCBA emergency procedures are not listed or approved by any regulatory agency! • IFSTA says follow SOPs Probable Failures • Mask Failure – Torn straps/Lens fracture • Air Pack failure – – – – First Stage (primary/secondary) Mask Mounted Regulator Low pressure hoses/connections Gauge failures • Bottle Failure – Blown burst disc ALMOST ALL PACK FAILURES WILL OCCUR AS THE BOTTLE IS TURNED ON! Don’t let this happen at the front door! So, you’ve had a failure! • Who are you going to tell? – EVERYONE! History tells us we don’t! – Not communicating will get you DEAD! – Advise your Crew and the Incident Command • Communicate a “Mayday, Mayday, Mayday” • Give your current/last known location and your PLAN (problem, location, air, needs) • If you can’t communicate, use the “EMER” Button and PASS device • If you aren’t able to fix it, all you can do is deal with it: That’s EMERGENCY OPS! Mask Failure • Try re-adjusting/tightening the mask – Broken strap, hold the mask in place to maintain a seal • Other small leaks may be plugged with a hand • Lens is gone! – You’re going to breathe smoke. • Bottle will empty in under 2 minutes. • Conserve air by pressing the air saver switch – Breathe off the regulator • Air flows out of the top spray bar on the MMR regulator • Use the Purge Valve and breathe off the MMR regulator Air Pack Failure • Low Air Pressure – Vibralert Activation – Communicate the problem, your location and your action plan – Get outside the IDLH atmosphere (if possible) – If not, get to a safe location and stop moving • Air Conservation is critical at this point • Use breathing techniques to conserve air – Use the Buddy Breathing System • This will be described in detail later – Use the RIT transfill System • This also will be described in detail later Air Pack Failure First Stage Regulator • Scott Air packs have two first stage regulators. – Redundancy for your safety – Highly unlikely to have a complete first stage failure with this type of system • Primary first stage failure – Fail Closed – Vibralert will activate even with a full cylinder – If this happens, exit the IDLH atmosphere • Secondary first stage failure – Fail Closed – Reverts back to the primary first stage regulator **NOTE** Vibralert will not function if this happens Air Pack Failure First Stage Regulator • First Stage regulator failure – Fail Open – Pressure will exceed the pressure relief system – Pressure relief will bleed off excess pressure to the atmosphere – Regulator will still provide air • Between breathes, air will be wasted • Bottle will bleed down rapidly • Conserve air by shutting off the bottle – Control air flow by opening/shutting the bottle valve Air Pack Failure Mask Mounted Regulator • Regulator does not reset after a breath is taken. – Make sure mask isn’t leaking. • Try re-setting the Air Saver Switch to the off position – Will not reset if the diaphragm is damaged. • Unrestricted free flow can drain a bottle in 2 minutes! • Can you get out in 2 minutes? Turn the purge valve all the way on and shut the bottle down to a point to maintain a usable air flow for the user. If the MMR regulator won’t control it, USE THE BOTTLE VALVE! DON’T WASTE AIR! What to do if Regulators don’t provide air? • • • • Don’t Panic! Don’t remove mask! Communicate!! Check the bottle valve and pressure next Try using the purge valve – Don’t leave open, excess air will blow out exhalation valve • Quick Fill (RIT Pack) • Buddy Breathe • Filter breathe by placing a glove in the mask opening – Remember, fire gases will create disorientation and cause you not to think clearly. • Bottle Breathe Quick Filling • Find the RIC Connection • • • • – Located within 4” of the bottle opening on all packs manufactured after 2002 Remove the dust cover Connect the RIT pack connection Ensure both bottle valves are open Transfill air from the RIT pack to the air pack **Remember, if the regulators do not provide air, the quick fill option will not do any good** Buddy Breathing • Use the buddy breather connections to connect two packs together – Packs must remain together until after exiting the IDLH atmosphere – Pack with the highest regulated air is used first – May not be functional if the first stage regulator has failed • Connect the MMR from one pack to the buddy breather connection – Connection must remain until after exiting the IDLH environment – May not be functional if the MMR has failed Don’t have a Buddy? • Big Time Emergency • If the mask is broken (mass leakage) and/or your regulator won’t give you any air: – Time to breathe off the bottle – Danger! Up to 4500 lbs air pressure – Make a funnel with your hand around bottle valve, pass air through hand, and direct the air flow into the mask opening. • Control the air flow with the bottle valve EMER Button • Use EMER only if you can’t communicate on • • • • • any other frequency EMER radio switches to EMER frequency, gives short medium pitch tone, reads “Emergency”, gets assigned repeater Dispatch will try to contact EMER radio IC should try to contact EMER radio Reset by turning off and on Does not work on site trunked channels and State Ops channels What can YOU do to minimize failures? • Proper, thorough, and vigilant maintenance and inspections! • Find the problem during your daily and weekly checks rather than on the fire ground • Give your pack a thorough inspection after each use – don’t put it back and assume it still works fine. – Fire ground environments are hard on equipment! Helpful Hints • Open your SCBA • bottle while the pack is still in the compartment Most air pack failures occur when the bottle is opened and the lines are charged More Hints • Better to find a pack failure at the rig, rather than at the front door! • Keep your gear clean-most failures occur as a result of improper cleaning • Check for a seal on your mask with a gentle inhale-a hard breath will seal any mask to your face Daily Checks Face Mask • Ensure the mask is in good condition – – – – – – Check Check Check Check Check Check the Lens/Lens ring for fractures the straps for elasticity and damage the Mask seal for cracking the strap connectors for damage that the one way valves are in place for damage to speaking diaphragms • Nose cup should be properly in place • Clean the mask regularly • Make sure the mask fits and seals properly Daily Checks Air Pack • Pressurize the pack – – – – Verify that there are no air leaks! Does the vibralert activate on the way up? Do all pressure gauges read within 200 lbs? Are the electronics working properly? – – – – – Did it activate on the first breath? Actuate the purge valve to ensure proper operation. Does it provide the appropriate amount of air? Does the vibralert activate at 25% bottle pressure? Do the electronics work appropriately? • Breathe off the regulator Daily Checks Air Pack, (cont.) • Verify all dust covers are in place and in good condition – Dust Cover locations are: • Battery compartment, RIT Connection and Buddy Breather Connection • Straps are in-service and ready for the next user • Bottle is at 4500psi (no less then 4000psi) • Ensure the air pack is properly secured in the apparatus Summary • WAC says you have to wear a SCBA in a • • hazardous atmospheres Emergency procedures are designed to prepare for the unexpected problems Emergency procedures must be performed often to make them second nature – Remember, thinking won’t be as clear in these situations • Regular inspections and maintenance detects failures early Emergency Procedures Summary • • • • • • • • • Quick Communication Check bottle valve and pressure Try the purge valve Quick fill with RIT pack Buddy Breathe Breathe off of the regulator Breathe off of the bottle Filter Breathe (last resort) Most importantly GET OUT FAST!! And Get Out ALIVE!!