ORISSA UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE & TECHNOLOGY, BHUBANESWAR WELCOMES YOU STRATEGIES & TECHNOLOGIES TO BE PROMOTED FOR EXTENDING SECOND GREEN REVOLUTION IN ORISSA Dr. M.M. Panda Dean of Research Orissa University of Agriculture & Technology Bhubaneswar – 751 003 9th July, 2010 ORISSA • Occupies 4.7 % of India’s area • Inhabitates 3.58 % human & 4.8% livestock • 1451 mm annual rainfall • 10.4 % water resources • 480 km coast length & 2400 sq km continental shelf • 10 agroclimatic zones • Frequent natural calamities (35 times in last 45 years) • Rich biodiversity – 2 out of 22 Agro-biodiversity hot spots (Koraput, Mayurbhanj) – 3 Biosphere Reserves (Bhitarakanika, Semilipal, Chilka) • Congenial climate for cultivation of most of the crops Land use classification Geographical area Non-Agricultural Use Forest Permanent Pasture Current fallow Barren / Unculturable Other fallow Culturable waste Trees / grooves Cultivable area Area in lakh ha 155.71 12.98 58.13 4.94 5.76 8.40* 2.29* 3.75* 3.42* 61.80 About 17.86 lakh ha calls for massive investment for making culturable. To start with about 6 lakh ha can be taken up for suitable plantation at an approximate cost of Rs.24,000/ha. Cultivated land types in Orissa Area in lakh ha High 29.14 (47.2 %) Medium 17.55 (28.4 %) Low 15.11 (24.4 %) Total 61.80 About 8 lakh ha of unirrigated high land can be covered by pulses (greengram, blackgram, arhar), oilseeds (groundnut, sesame) & vegetables by substituting upland paddy. A part of the low land (about 10%) can be converted to pond based Integrated Farming System at an approximate cost of Rs.50,000/ha. About 40 lakh ha needs treatment for soil and water conservation following the principles of Integrated Watershed Development Problem soils in Orissa Area in lakh ha Soil acidity Soil erosion Soil salinity Water logging 40.0 26.0 4.0 3.0 Appropriate soil amelioration is required in about 44 lakh ha with approximate cost of Rs.1000/ha. Inadequate drainage is one of the major constraints in coastal Orissa which calls for re-sectioning & re-grading of the drainage channels. Provision of sub surface water harvesting structures & installing micro tube wells (30-40’ deep, 2-3” dia, Pump capacity limiting to 2 HP) can reduce drainage congestion and provides sweet water for irrigation. The cost norm is Rs.4000/ha for surface drainage, Rs.40,000/ha for subsurface drainage & Rs.15,000/ha for reclamation of waterlogged areas with bio-drainage (2mx2m). Source wise irrigation developed Area in lakh ha Source Kharif Rabi Total Potential Major & Medium 12.86 5.64 18.5 39.5 Minor (flow) 5.42 0.74 6.16 9.7 Minor (lift) 4.74 2.70 7.44 8.9 Other Sources 5.66 5.0 10.66 0.9 28.67 14.07 42.76 59.0 20.81 10.96 Total Utilized 31.77 (74%) •74% of the potential created is utilized. •Overall 37 % of the area cropped is irrigated. •Rice is the major consumer of irrigation water. Irrigation facility can be extended to another 16.24 lakh ha for which potentiality exists. The cost norm is about Rs.2 lakhs/ha. The State intends to provide irrigation to at least 35% of the cultivated area in each of the 314 Blocks. There is a need of enhancing irrigation facility particularly through water harvesting structures in interior districts. In coastal districts the untapped ground water potential (82%) can be exploited. Recharging groundwater also needs attention. Efforts need be made for enhancing utilization of potential already created. Enhancement of water productivity should be the focus. Extent of rainfed area EXTENT NO. OF DIST. DISTRICTS 15-30 % 6 Bhadrak, Cuttack, Ganjam, Puri 30-40 % 2 Sonepur, Jagatsinghpur 40-50 % 4 Balasore, Malkangiri, Boudh, Khurda 50-60 % 4 Dhenkanal, Gajapati, Nayagarh, Bargarh 60-70 % 8 Angul, Kalahandi, Koraput, Nabarangpur, Sambalpur, Rayagada > 70 % 6 Bolangir, Nuapada, Kandhamal, Jharsuguda, Sundargarh, Mayurbhanj * Jajpur, Kendrapara, Keonjhar, Deogarh, More than 50 % of cultivated area are rainfed in 60 % of the districts Watersheds to be treated Micro watersheds delineated (No.) Micro watersheds treated (No.) Micro watersheds in command area (No.) Micro watersheds to be treated (No.) 20,079 4836 4524 10,757 Source: Orissa Watershed Development Mission Plan wise treatment target (No.) XI th plan XII th plan XIII th plan XIV th plan (2009-10 to 2011-12) (2012-13 to 2016-17) (2017-18 to 2021-22) (2022-23 to 2026-27) 1680 4470 4396 211 * For treating 10,757 left over micro watersheds (500 ha each), Rs.6454.2 crores will be required at the existing cost norm of Rs.12,000/ha. Market scenario • Large number of intermediaries reduce share of producer in the market. Commodity Rice Groundnut Turmeric Ginger Share of producer (%) 62 – 75 54 – 73 22 – 54 53 – 68 Variation in vegetable retail price Vegetable Brinjal Tomato Radish Cauliflower Beans Price range (Rs./kg) 2.5 – 17.0 1.5 – 22.0 1.0 – 11.0 2.5 – 23.0 4.0 – 15.4 Climate is changing • Delayed monsoon onset (2 weeks) • Number of rainy days/year southern Orissa by 5 days decreasing in • Prolonged dry spell • More number of Heavy rainfall days • Increased flood and drought occurrence • Early start of summer (February onwards) • Post-monsoon period (coinciding with rice flowering) remains warmer which adversely affects yield • Fluctuating winter temperature • More intense and prolonged heat wave, even in coastal Orissa Effect on Agriculture • Kharif growing period decreased by 2 weeks • Increasing weather risk for timely operations • Increased risk of crop submergence • Increased damage due to dry spell / drought • Lower fertilizers use efficiency • Reduced quality discolouration) of produce (grain • New pests emerging (swarming caterpillar, sheath rot) • Increased salinity in coastal areas Research intervention • Development of new short duration rice varieties with resistance to drought. • Development of flood tolerant rice varieties. • Simulation crop modeling for optimum weather use. • Pest scenario prediction due to climate change. • Devising methods for faster dissemination of weather based agro-advisories. • Developing ways and means for fertilizer and water use efficiency. increasing Steps to enhance SRR • Seed village programmes on pulses, oilseeds & paddy • Establishment of processing plants within easy reach of growers • Establishment of dehumidified chambers at important production centres of groundnut • Service co-operative societies to be strengthened and be given the responsibility of seed distribution • SAUs to be supported to maintain indigenous elite germplasm / land races • Private dealers network to be extended to GP level • Incentives to seed growers for creating healthy competition • Capacity building of seed growers FERTILIZER CONSUMPTION • Fertilizer consumption in the State is low (62 kg/ha) compared to national average of 128.6 kg/ha. • A negative balance of NPK with wide deficiency of S, B, Mo & Zn is exhibited. spread • Integrated nutrient management / site specific nutrient management is to be promoted in majority of the areas so that soil health is maintained. • Organic agriculture need promotion in areas which are organic by default. Organic markets to be created for remunerative returns to farmers. • A less stringent certification procedure be developed & adopted particularly for the domestic markets. FARM MECHANIZATION Orissa India Highest Power consumption for agriculture 2% 30% - Power consumption (kilowatt/ha) 0.71 1.62 3.56 (Punjab) Tractors/’000 ha* 2.5 12.2 82.5 (Punjab) Power tillers/’000 ha* 0.3 0.4 2.8 (WB) * Tentative • The subsidy component on sale of farm implements has gone up from Rs.10 lakhs in 1986-87 to Rs.64 crores in 2009-10. • Electricity is required to be subsidized for agricultural use. • Drudgery reducing woman friendly farm equipments/ implements to be developed and popularized. • Self Help Groups to be trained to take care up repair and maintenance of farm equipments at village level. CROP PRODUCTIVITY (2007-08) Crop Rice Wheat Maize Gram Arhar Pulses Groundnut* Sunflower* Oilseeds Cotton Jute & Mesta Sugarcane* Potato Productivity (kg/ha) ORISSA All INDIA 1720 2202 1482 2802 2245 2335 659 762 825 826 458 625 1705 1459 981 765 804 1115 423 467 1172 2101 70.4 t/ha 69.0 t/ha 11.1 t/ha 17.8 t/ha * Productivity of groundnut, sunflower, sugarcane is above the national average. * Deficit in pulses (0.88 lakh t) & oilseeds (13.7 lakh t) to meet domestic requirement Research intervention (Rice) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Developing suitable varieties & agro-techniques for handicapped ecologies Improvement of short grain local aromatic rice genotypes Standardization of production technologies for SRI, aerobic rice & hybrid rice Standardization of organic package for Basmati rice Integrated pest management & popularization of use of herbicides & bio control agents Development of resource conservation technologies (RCT) in rice cultivation Development of technologies on adaptation & mitigation to combat climate change On-farm Trials in Rice (To be supported) • Evaluation of rice hybrids • Evaluation of drought tolerant rice varieties • Evaluation of submergence tolerant varieties (Swarna Sub-1) • Evaluation varieties • Evaluation of raised and sunken bed method of cropping in canal commands • Use of herbicides for weed management • Integrated nutrient management in rice • Integrated pest management in rice of short grain aromatic rice Research intervention (Pulses) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Development of cold tolerant mung bean (Research in progress). Identification of suitable HYVs pulses for various seasons & agroclimatic condition (To be strengthened). Developing package of practices on pyra cropping (To be strengthened). Evaluation of low BOAA containing Lathyrus varieties (To be supported). Standardizing INM, IPM & IDM technologies (To be strengthened) Production of Breeder seeds in farmers’ field (To be supported). Evaluation of performance of different irrigated pulse crops including Rajmash in rabi (To be supported). On-farm Trials on Pulses (To be supported) • Varietal evaluation agroclimatic situations under • Full package vs. farmers’ practice • Evaluation of pulses as intercrops • INM in pulses • Zero till drill vs. farmers’ practice • Micro irrigation different Research intervention (Oilseeds) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Identification of suitable HYVs and hybrids of different oilseed crops for various locations (To be strengthened). Standardizing INM, IPM & IDM technologies (To be strengthened). Production of breeder seeds in farmers’ field (To be supported). Developing varieties tolerant to various biotic stresses (To be supported). Developing groundnut varieties having dormancy (To be strengthened). Developing groundnut stripper & low cost storage bin for groundnut (To be supported). On farm trials on Oilseeds (To be supported) • Full package vs. farmers’ practice • Evaluation of oilseeds as intercrops • Mustard as a catch crop in irrigated areas • Use of paper mill sludge • Pest & disease control • Micro irrigation • Planting method in groundnut • Bee pollination in sunflower & mustard Research intervention (Maize) 1. Developing quality protein maize and it’s popularization in tribal districts for nutritional security. 2. Development of short duration varieties / single cross hybrids. 3. Standardization of production technology for sweet corn. 4. Maize based intercropping 5. Value addition Integrated Farming System • • • • Our focus is on small and marginal farmers (84%) majority of whom operate under Complex, Diverse, Risk prone situations. A rural family having 6 members including two children requires approximately Rs.60,000 / annum for livelihood security. This has to be derived from the income from farming and allied enterprises for the small and marginal farmers. But no single farm enterprise is likely to support them for generation of adequate income and gainful employment year round. Integrated Farming System is the option. Research priorities • Development / identification of suitable varieties of crops for different agro ecological situations / handicapped ecologies. • Developing adaptation and mitigation technologies to manage climate change. • Development of Integrated Farming System model for small and marginal land holders. • Amelioration of soil acidity. • Management toxicities. of nutritional deficiencies and • Integrated nutrient management for major crop sequences. Research priorities contd….. • Developing organic package of practices for high value crops. • Enhancement of water productivity. • Integrated management of diseases of important crops. pests and • Developing drudgery reducing women friendly agricultural implements. • Developing technologies for value addition of agricultural produce including packaging of perishable vegetables / fruits. Technology Development Process • Develop appropriate technologies through research in a farmer participatory mode. • On-farm trials in large scale to be conducted in farmers’ field. • Implementation of research projects / on-farm trials on contract basis.