Orissa University of Agriculture & Technology.Bhubaneswar

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ORISSA UNIVERSITY OF
AGRICULTURE & TECHNOLOGY,
BHUBANESWAR
WELCOMES YOU
STRATEGIES & TECHNOLOGIES
TO BE PROMOTED FOR EXTENDING
SECOND GREEN REVOLUTION IN
ORISSA
Dr. M.M. Panda
Dean of Research
Orissa University of Agriculture & Technology
Bhubaneswar – 751 003
9th July, 2010
ORISSA
• Occupies 4.7 % of India’s area
• Inhabitates 3.58 % human &
4.8% livestock
• 1451 mm annual rainfall
• 10.4 % water resources
• 480 km coast length & 2400
sq km continental shelf
• 10 agroclimatic zones
• Frequent natural calamities (35 times in last 45 years)
• Rich biodiversity
– 2 out of 22 Agro-biodiversity hot spots (Koraput,
Mayurbhanj)
– 3 Biosphere Reserves (Bhitarakanika, Semilipal,
Chilka)
• Congenial climate for cultivation of most of the crops
Land use classification
Geographical area
Non-Agricultural Use
Forest
Permanent Pasture
Current fallow
Barren / Unculturable
Other fallow
Culturable waste
Trees / grooves
Cultivable area
Area in lakh ha
155.71
12.98
58.13
4.94
5.76
8.40*
2.29*
3.75*
3.42*
61.80
About 17.86 lakh ha calls for massive investment for
making culturable. To start with about 6 lakh ha can be
taken up for suitable plantation at an approximate cost of
Rs.24,000/ha.
Cultivated land types in Orissa
Area in lakh ha
High
29.14 (47.2 %)
Medium
17.55 (28.4 %)
Low
15.11 (24.4 %)
Total
61.80
About 8 lakh ha of unirrigated
high land can be covered by pulses
(greengram,
blackgram,
arhar),
oilseeds (groundnut, sesame) &
vegetables by substituting upland
paddy.
A part of the low land (about 10%) can be
converted to pond based Integrated Farming
System at an approximate cost of Rs.50,000/ha.
About 40 lakh ha needs treatment for soil and
water conservation following the principles of
Integrated Watershed Development
Problem soils in Orissa
Area in lakh ha
Soil acidity
Soil erosion
Soil salinity
Water logging
40.0
26.0
4.0
3.0
Appropriate soil amelioration
is required in about 44 lakh ha
with approximate cost of
Rs.1000/ha.
Inadequate drainage is one of the major constraints in
coastal Orissa which calls for re-sectioning & re-grading of
the drainage channels.
Provision of sub surface water harvesting structures &
installing micro tube wells (30-40’ deep, 2-3” dia, Pump
capacity limiting to 2 HP) can reduce drainage congestion
and provides sweet water for irrigation.
The cost norm is Rs.4000/ha for surface drainage,
Rs.40,000/ha for subsurface drainage & Rs.15,000/ha for
reclamation of waterlogged areas with bio-drainage (2mx2m).
Source wise irrigation developed
Area in lakh ha
Source
Kharif
Rabi
Total
Potential
Major & Medium
12.86
5.64
18.5
39.5
Minor (flow)
5.42
0.74
6.16
9.7
Minor (lift)
4.74
2.70
7.44
8.9
Other Sources
5.66
5.0
10.66
0.9
28.67
14.07
42.76
59.0
20.81
10.96
Total
Utilized
31.77 (74%)
•74% of the potential created is utilized.
•Overall 37 % of the area cropped is irrigated.
•Rice is the major consumer of irrigation water.
Irrigation facility can be extended to another 16.24
lakh ha for which potentiality exists. The cost
norm is about Rs.2 lakhs/ha.
The State intends to provide irrigation to at least
35% of the cultivated area in each of the 314
Blocks.
There is a need of enhancing irrigation facility
particularly through water harvesting structures in
interior districts.
In coastal districts the untapped ground water
potential (82%) can be exploited. Recharging
groundwater also needs attention.
Efforts need be made for enhancing utilization of
potential already created.
Enhancement of water productivity should be the
focus.
Extent of rainfed area
EXTENT NO. OF
DIST.
DISTRICTS
15-30 %
6
Bhadrak, Cuttack,
Ganjam, Puri
30-40 %
2
Sonepur, Jagatsinghpur
40-50 %
4
Balasore, Malkangiri, Boudh, Khurda
50-60 %
4
Dhenkanal, Gajapati, Nayagarh, Bargarh
60-70 %
8
Angul,
Kalahandi,
Koraput,
Nabarangpur,
Sambalpur,
Rayagada
> 70 %
6
Bolangir, Nuapada, Kandhamal, Jharsuguda,
Sundargarh, Mayurbhanj
*
Jajpur,
Kendrapara,
Keonjhar,
Deogarh,
More than 50 % of cultivated area are rainfed in 60 % of
the
districts
Watersheds to be treated
Micro
watersheds
delineated
(No.)
Micro
watersheds
treated
(No.)
Micro
watersheds in
command area
(No.)
Micro
watersheds to
be treated
(No.)
20,079
4836
4524
10,757
Source:
Orissa Watershed Development Mission
Plan wise treatment target (No.)
XI
th
plan
XII
th
plan
XIII
th
plan
XIV
th
plan
(2009-10 to 2011-12)
(2012-13 to 2016-17)
(2017-18 to 2021-22)
(2022-23 to 2026-27)
1680
4470
4396
211
*
For treating 10,757 left over micro watersheds (500 ha
each), Rs.6454.2 crores will be required at the existing
cost norm of Rs.12,000/ha.
Market scenario
• Large number of intermediaries reduce share of
producer in the market.
Commodity
Rice
Groundnut
Turmeric
Ginger
Share of producer (%)
62 – 75
54 – 73
22 – 54
53 – 68
Variation in vegetable retail price
Vegetable
Brinjal
Tomato
Radish
Cauliflower
Beans
Price range (Rs./kg)
2.5 – 17.0
1.5 – 22.0
1.0 – 11.0
2.5 – 23.0
4.0 – 15.4
Climate is changing
• Delayed monsoon onset (2 weeks)
• Number of rainy days/year
southern Orissa by 5 days
decreasing
in
• Prolonged dry spell
• More number of Heavy rainfall days
• Increased flood and drought occurrence
• Early start of summer (February onwards)
• Post-monsoon period (coinciding with rice
flowering) remains warmer which adversely
affects yield
• Fluctuating winter temperature
• More intense and prolonged heat wave, even in
coastal Orissa
Effect on Agriculture
• Kharif growing period decreased by 2 weeks
• Increasing weather risk for timely operations
• Increased risk of crop submergence
• Increased damage due to dry spell / drought
• Lower fertilizers use efficiency
• Reduced
quality
discolouration)
of
produce
(grain
• New pests emerging (swarming caterpillar,
sheath rot)
• Increased salinity in coastal areas
Research intervention
• Development of new short duration rice varieties
with resistance to drought.
• Development of flood tolerant rice varieties.
• Simulation crop modeling for optimum weather
use.
• Pest scenario prediction due to climate change.
• Devising methods for faster dissemination of
weather based agro-advisories.
• Developing ways and means for
fertilizer and water use efficiency.
increasing
Steps to enhance SRR
• Seed village programmes on pulses, oilseeds &
paddy
• Establishment of processing plants within easy
reach of growers
• Establishment of dehumidified chambers at
important production centres of groundnut
• Service co-operative societies to be strengthened
and be given the responsibility of seed distribution
• SAUs to be supported to maintain indigenous elite
germplasm / land races
• Private dealers network to be extended to GP level
• Incentives to seed growers for creating healthy
competition
• Capacity building of seed growers
FERTILIZER CONSUMPTION
• Fertilizer consumption in the State is low (62 kg/ha)
compared to national average of 128.6 kg/ha.
• A negative balance of NPK with wide
deficiency of S, B, Mo & Zn is exhibited.
spread
• Integrated nutrient management / site specific
nutrient management is to be promoted in majority of
the areas so that soil health is maintained.
• Organic agriculture need promotion in areas which
are organic by default. Organic markets to be created
for remunerative returns to farmers.
• A less stringent certification procedure be developed
& adopted particularly for the domestic markets.
FARM MECHANIZATION
Orissa India
Highest
Power consumption
for agriculture
2%
30%
-
Power consumption
(kilowatt/ha)
0.71
1.62
3.56 (Punjab)
Tractors/’000 ha*
2.5
12.2
82.5 (Punjab)
Power tillers/’000 ha*
0.3
0.4
2.8 (WB)
* Tentative
• The subsidy component on sale of farm implements has
gone up from Rs.10 lakhs in 1986-87 to Rs.64 crores in
2009-10.
• Electricity is required to be subsidized for agricultural use.
• Drudgery reducing woman friendly farm equipments/
implements to be developed and popularized.
• Self Help Groups to be trained to take care up repair and
maintenance of farm equipments at village level.
CROP PRODUCTIVITY (2007-08)
Crop
Rice
Wheat
Maize
Gram
Arhar
Pulses
Groundnut*
Sunflower*
Oilseeds
Cotton
Jute & Mesta
Sugarcane*
Potato
Productivity (kg/ha)
ORISSA
All INDIA
1720
2202
1482
2802
2245
2335
659
762
825
826
458
625
1705
1459
981
765
804
1115
423
467
1172
2101
70.4 t/ha
69.0 t/ha
11.1 t/ha
17.8 t/ha
* Productivity of groundnut, sunflower, sugarcane is above the
national average.
* Deficit in pulses (0.88 lakh t) & oilseeds (13.7 lakh t) to meet
domestic requirement
Research intervention (Rice)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Developing suitable varieties & agro-techniques
for handicapped ecologies
Improvement of short grain local aromatic rice
genotypes
Standardization of production technologies for
SRI, aerobic rice & hybrid rice
Standardization of organic package for Basmati
rice
Integrated pest management & popularization of
use of herbicides & bio control agents
Development
of
resource
conservation
technologies (RCT) in rice cultivation
Development of technologies on adaptation &
mitigation to combat climate change
On-farm Trials in Rice
(To be supported)
•
Evaluation of rice hybrids
•
Evaluation of drought tolerant rice varieties
•
Evaluation of submergence tolerant varieties
(Swarna Sub-1)
•
Evaluation
varieties
•
Evaluation of raised and sunken bed method
of cropping in canal commands
•
Use of herbicides for weed management
•
Integrated nutrient management in rice
•
Integrated pest management in rice
of
short
grain
aromatic
rice
Research intervention (Pulses)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Development of cold tolerant mung bean
(Research in progress).
Identification of suitable HYVs pulses for
various seasons & agroclimatic condition (To
be strengthened).
Developing package of practices on pyra
cropping (To be strengthened).
Evaluation of low BOAA containing Lathyrus
varieties (To be supported).
Standardizing INM, IPM & IDM technologies (To
be strengthened)
Production of Breeder seeds in farmers’ field
(To be supported).
Evaluation of performance of different irrigated
pulse crops including Rajmash in rabi (To be
supported).
On-farm Trials on Pulses
(To be supported)
•
Varietal
evaluation
agroclimatic situations
under
•
Full package vs. farmers’ practice
•
Evaluation of pulses as intercrops
•
INM in pulses
•
Zero till drill vs. farmers’ practice
•
Micro irrigation
different
Research intervention (Oilseeds)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Identification of suitable HYVs and hybrids
of different oilseed crops for various
locations (To be strengthened).
Standardizing INM, IPM & IDM technologies
(To be strengthened).
Production of breeder seeds in farmers’ field
(To be supported).
Developing varieties tolerant to various
biotic stresses (To be supported).
Developing
groundnut
varieties
having
dormancy (To be strengthened).
Developing groundnut stripper & low cost
storage bin for groundnut (To be supported).
On farm trials on Oilseeds
(To be supported)
•
Full package vs. farmers’ practice
•
Evaluation of oilseeds as intercrops
•
Mustard as a catch crop in irrigated areas
•
Use of paper mill sludge
•
Pest & disease control
•
Micro irrigation
•
Planting method in groundnut
•
Bee pollination in sunflower & mustard
Research intervention (Maize)
1.
Developing quality protein maize and it’s
popularization
in
tribal
districts
for
nutritional security.
2.
Development of short duration varieties /
single cross hybrids.
3.
Standardization of production technology for
sweet corn.
4.
Maize based intercropping
5.
Value addition
Integrated Farming System
•
•
•
•
Our focus is on small and marginal farmers
(84%) majority of whom operate under
Complex, Diverse, Risk prone situations.
A rural family having 6 members including
two
children
requires
approximately
Rs.60,000 / annum for livelihood security.
This has to be derived from the income from
farming and allied enterprises for the small
and marginal farmers.
But no single farm enterprise is likely to
support them for generation of adequate
income and gainful employment year round.
Integrated Farming System is the option.
Research priorities
• Development / identification of suitable varieties of
crops for different agro ecological situations /
handicapped ecologies.
• Developing adaptation and mitigation technologies
to manage climate change.
• Development of Integrated Farming System model
for small and marginal land holders.
• Amelioration of soil acidity.
• Management
toxicities.
of
nutritional
deficiencies
and
• Integrated nutrient management for major crop
sequences.
Research priorities contd…..
• Developing organic package of practices for
high value crops.
• Enhancement of water productivity.
• Integrated
management
of
diseases of important crops.
pests
and
• Developing drudgery reducing women friendly
agricultural implements.
• Developing technologies for value addition of
agricultural produce including packaging of
perishable vegetables / fruits.
Technology Development Process
•
Develop
appropriate
technologies
through
research
in
a
farmer
participatory mode.
•
On-farm trials in large scale to be
conducted in farmers’ field.
•
Implementation of research projects /
on-farm trials on contract basis.
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