Ch. 22 PPT - Moravia School District

Chapter 22: The Early Industrial Revolution, 1760-1851
Causes of the Industrial Revolution
Population Growth – Columbian exchange, younger marriages, more kids
The Agricultural Revolution – new foods, new methods, new tools
(all equal more food)
 Potatoes & Corn – more food per acre & feed for livestock
 Enclosure – consolidated and enclosed, tenant farmers looking for work; move to cities
 More workers than there are jobs
 Technology – increases efficiency, decreases need for human labor
Britain & Continental Europe
 Rise of Industrialization in Britain – put inventions into practice more quickly than others
 British Advantages over Europe
Fast flowing rivers
Large amts iron ore and coal
Natural harbors
Large merchant fleet and navy
1789-1815 Revolutions & Wars (helped Britain to
protect technologies)
*Brits pass laws forbidding anyone who
manufactures and/or repairs textiles
machines to leave country w/o permission
- Samuel Slater
Causes of the Industrial Revolution… continued
 Rise of Industrialization in Europe
Continental Europe attempts to follow Britain’s lead
Encouraged private investors (joint-stock companies)
Politics favorable to businesses
Money to be made off increased trade
Abundant coal & iron-ore throughout Europe
Impetus for industrialization:
Cottage Industry - mass production through division of labor
(China – Song dynasty; iron prod – 11th century)
New machines & mechanization
Flying shuttle, Spinning Jenny, Water frame, Mule, etc
Cotton gin – cotton prod and replaceable parts
Why so important?
Increase in the manufacture of iron (China – Song dynasty)
1) Machines, tools, etc
2) Steam Engine – more reliable consistent source of pwr
- no longer confined to being near river
3) Electric telegraph
Mass Production: Pottery – making identical items by breaking the process into simple tasks
 Wedgwood Pottery
Increase in tea/coffee drinking – vessels that would not contaminate flavor
Josiah Wedgewood imitated China’s porcelain
 Becomes member of the Royal Society
Division of labor – increased productivity, lowered costs
Used a steam engine in his factory (purchased from two other members of Royal Society)
Mechanization: The Cotton Industry – application of machines to manufacturing
Whitney’s Cotton Gin
 Innovations in Cotton Manufacturing
Flying shuttle – greatly sped up weaving of threads to make textiles
Spinning Jenny – greatly sped up spinning of cotton threads (downside was
threads were soft and irregular; had to be used with linen – flax)
Richard Arkwright: Water Frame (initially powered by water) – stronger thread
Samuel Crompton: Mule – finer, more even thread
British textiles able to compete successfully with high quality textiles
(handmade) from India
Inventions spurred on more mechanization
1) Increased manufacturer productivity
2) Lower prices for the consumer
Luddites (1811-2) – backlash against technology (some serious machine bashing)
Why were textiles
a sure winner?
Innovations in Iron Making
Often assoc w/Deforestation (expensive & restricted)
Darby’s coke – coal w/impurities removed = cheaper; albeit lower grade iron
Darby’s grandson built a bridge of iron
Crystal Palace – showcase greenhouse for 1851 Great Exhibition
The Steam Engine
 The Newcomen and Watt Engines
Newcomen – used to pump H2O out of mines
Watt improves on it with condenser & allowed rotary
 Steamboats and ships
US – a nation moved by steam (1st water, then land)
1838 – cross the Atlantic by steam
Railroads – cheaper, faster, opens up travel
 1829 – Liverpool to Manchester – Rocket approx 30 mph
 Railroads in America – opened up farm lands to markets
 Could now transport large amt of prod over land
 Railroads in Europe – satisfied need for transportation
Communication over wires
 Electric Telegraph (1837)
Samuel Morse – transmitted on a single wire
Strung along railroads
Increased speed of communication
Impact of the early Industrial Revolution
New Industrial cities – towns grew too fast (urbanization)
 sewage out the window, cheap/quick buildings, fire hazards, no bldg/safety codes
Rural Environments
 North America - nature as an obstacle to be conquered
 Europe – population up, land scarce, woodlands denuded, national transportation networks
 Industry & Slavery – sugar/coffee/cotton demand = more slaves
Working Conditions
 Unskilled, repetitive, unsafe
 Accidents frequent
 Phossy Jaw
 Women & Children in Industry
Initially domestic servants or work @ home
Women earned 1/3 to 2/3 less then men
No family life, stress on marriage
No time for childhood or school
children 14-16 hours a day just like adults
Workers had no rights
No health/safety codes in factories
No overtime, vacation time, holidays, etc
(Typical work week 84-96 hr)
Owners could use whatever means they deemed necessary to motivate workers
Typically one 30-60 min break once a day
Sometimes paid in scrip
Changes in Society
 Handloom Weavers vs. Factory Workers
 Improvements and setbacks
1792-1815 – price of food rose faster than wages
1820’s – food prices fell, wages rose
1845-51 – Irish potato famine, min of ¼ died, ¼ left
(reliance on lumbar – over 90% of crop destroyed)
Irish eat potatos at every meal
- more emigrate to America than any other country
Worst famine in history (proportionally)
English exploit famine
“Irish Holocaust”
 The New Middle Class = beneficiaries, “nouveau riche”
 Middle-Class Women and middle-class attitudes
“Cult of domesticity” – a woman's place is in the home
Olympe de Gouges, The Declaration of the Rights of Woman (September 1791)
1792 – Mary Wollstonecraft “Vindication of the Rights of Women” English, argues
for the rights of women to an education and opportunities equal to a man’s.
1848 – Resolutions passed at the Seneca Falls Conference to increase the rights of
 When do all women finally get the right to vote in England and America (after what major event)?
Vindication of the Rights
of Women
New economic and political belief systems
Laissez Faire
 Adam Smith
 Wealth of Nations – government - stay out of business (Laissez Faire)
those seeking personal gain will promote general welfare by providing products that
will benefit society.
Prices will be determined by “Invisible Hand” of the market
Invisible Hand - ?
Promoted free-market capitalism, believed in private ownership
Challenged mercantilism – (govt control)
 Other thinkers
Thomas Malthus – population will out grow ability of agriculture to feed
Believed war and famine were natural checks on population growth
Humans should practice artificial population control (delay marriage,
abstinence, etc)
Jeremy Bentham – Utilitarianism (govt should look out for all citizens)
Advocated for govt regulation of business and society
Fredrich List (German) – argued for tariffs; disagreed with Laissez Faire trade
Fledgingly industrial societies could not compete with Britiain (Zollverein)
 Positivism – scientific method applied to society, three stages of society
Believed Sci Method could solve social problems
Workers form communities under guidance of caring owners/businessmen
 Other unrealistic ideas included utopian socialism
Sadler Commission – Commission to examine conditions during Ind Rev; focused
mainly on issue of child labor
Reform Bill 1832 – reforms to voting system; concentrated lessening corruption
(most citizens were dissappointed with result – minimum income or property requirement still in place)
Factory Act of 1833 – limits to child labor & working hours A young person (1318) no more than 12 hrs, and a child (9-13) no more than 9 hrs
Mines Act of 1842 – no women or children (under 10) underground
Corn Law tariffs repealed in 1846
Workers Organizations – Chartism = universal male suffrage, secret ballots, pay for
representatives, and annual elections.
“Sun never set on the British Empire”
Egypt – Britain took steps to ensure a weak Egypt – effectively killing Egyptian industrialization
efforts (Suez Canal & Egyptian cotton)
India – “Jewel in the Crown” of the British empire – discouraged domestic industry
Opium Wars - Nemesis
China – “Spheres of influence” – Western industrialized nations begin to divide China up
Letter to Queen Victoria
British supplant India as world’s leading producer of textiles
Sepoy Rebellion - Ethnocentrism