Chapter 17 Energy: Introduction to Energy and

Chapter 17 Energy:
Introduction to Energy and
Nonrenewable Energy Sources
Energy Basics
What is energy?
the ability to do work
What are some forms of energy?
chemical, electrical, mechanical, nuclear, light, heat
What do we use energy for?
transportation, heating, cooking, industry
Energy Basics
What is the difference between nonrenewable
and renewable sources of energy?
Once we use up nonrenewable, we can’t get
any more
What are examples of nonrenewable?
oil, natural gas, coal, nuclear
What are examples of renewable?
solar, wind, water, biomass, oceans
Energy Efficiency and Energy
What is the difference?
Energy efficiency – the amount of useful energy produced compared to
the amount wasted as heat (2nd Law of Thermodynamics); built into the
device or system, unavoidable waste
Examples of levels of energy efficiency:
human body:
incandescent lightbulb:
internal combustion engine:
steam turbine:
Energy conservation – making an effort to reduce the amount of energy
used, some waste can be avoided – Examples?
Why should we try to increase both?
Use of energy resources in the U.S.
U.S. has 4.6% of world population; uses 24% of the
world’s energy
Nonrenewable energy resources removed from
the earth’s crust include: oil, natural gas, coal,
and uranium
Fossil Fuels: Oil, Natural Gas, Coal
Fossil fuels originated from the decay of living
organisms millions of years ago, and account for
about 80% of the energy generated in the U.S.
Deposits of crude oil often are trapped within the
earth's crust and can be extracted by drilling a well
Crude oil: complex liquid mixture of hydrocarbons,
with small amounts of S, O, N impurities
Example: the Deepwater Horizon was drilling to get
Crude oil is transported to a refinery
where distillation produces
One example: TransAlaska Pipeline
Oil refinery – notice the tall towers….
Oil refineries in the southern U.S.
Info for Oil:
already in
Risk of
Natural Gas – another fossil fuel
Mixture of gases
•50–90% Methane (CH4)
•Ethane (C2H6)
•Propane (C3H8)
•Butane (C4H10)
•Hydrogen sulfide (H2S)
Sources of Natural Gas
• Russia & Kazakhstan - almost 40% of world's supply.
• Iran (15%), Qatar (5%), Saudi Arabia (4%), Algeria (4%), United
States (3%), Nigeria (3%), Venezuela (3%);
• 90–95% of natural gas in U.S. domestic (~411,000 km = 255,000
miles of pipeline).
What do we use natural gas for?
Produce electricity
Heat homes (inside homes, water heater)
Industry (heat for warmth and producing
Hydraulic Fracturing or Fracking
Technique used to get gas out from
underground – pump water into spaces to
increase pressure
Video on fracking
Fracking can
and earthquakes
Coal: the first fossil fuel used
Long history of use
Can be burned directly to produce a lot of
heat in a stove, train engine or factory
The dirtiest type of fossil fuel
Relatively cheap and abundant
Coal Mining
Strip mining – very destructive
Underground mining, including longwall
mining – can be dangerous to the miners
Video clip:
Ranks of Coal
Lignite: A brownish-black coal of low
quality; energy content is less than
4000 BTU/lb
 Subbituminous: dull black; energy content
is 8,300 BTU/lb
Bituminous: most common coal is dense
and black (often with well-defined bands of
bright and dull material); energy content
about 10,500 Btu/lb
Anthracite: a hard, black lustrous coal,
often referred to as hard coal; energy
content of about 14,000 Btu/lb Powerpoint%5CCoal.ppt
Acid Mine Drainage
The impact of mine
drainage on a lake after
receiving effluent from
an abandoned tailings
impoundment for over
50 years
Relatively fresh tailings in an
The same tailings impoundment
after 7 years of sulfide
oxidation. The white spots in
Figures A and B are gulls.
Cutting edge research:
Clean Coal Technology (CCT)
Involves carbon capture and
storage, washing coal to
remove pollutants, use of
devices to purify air as it
leaves the plant, convert
solid coal to a gas (cleaner,
more efficient)
Video clips:
Advantages and Disadvantages of Coal
• Most abundant fossil fuel
• Major U.S. reserves – contributes to energy
• 300 yrs. at current consumption rates
• High net energy yield
• Dirtiest fuel (produces particulate matter, carbon
dioxide and sulfur dioxide)
• Mining causes major environmental degradation
• Major threat to health
© Brooks/Cole Publishing Company / ITP
Nuclear Energy
In a conventional nuclear power plant,
a controlled nuclear fission chain reaction
heats water to…
produce high-pressure steam that…
turns turbines which…
generate electricity
Nuclear Energy
Nuclear fission – splitting of an
Once an atom splits, neutrons
cause other atoms to split – a
chain reaction occurs
In a nuclear power plant, the
chain reaction is kept under
control (using control rods),
and the heat is used to generate
Most common fuel used is
uranium – a nonrenewable
heavy metal that comes from
Controlled Nuclear Fission Reaction Energy%20Use%20-%203.ppt
• Types
• Alpha particles consist of 2 protons and 2 neutrons,
and therefore are positively charged
• Beta particles are negatively charged (electrons)
• Gamma rays have no mass or charge, but are a form
of electromagnetic radiation (similar to X-rays)
• Sources of natural radiation
Cosmic rays
Unit for measuring
radiation dose: millisievert
(mSv) Energy%20Use%20-%203.ppt
Effects of Radiation
• Genetic damages: from mutations
that alter genes
• Genetic defects can become
apparent in the next generation
• Somatic damages: to tissue, such as
burns, miscarriages & cancers EVR3019/Nuclear_Waste.ppt
Radioactive Waste
1. Low-level radiation (Gives of low amount of radiation)
• Sources: nuclear power plants, hospitals &
• 1940 – 1970 most was dumped into the ocean
• Today deposit into landfills
2. High-level radiation (Gives of large amount of
• Fuel rods from nuclear power plants
• Half-time of Plutonium 239 is 24000 years
• Safe method of storage is difficult – may be stored
in pools, or dry casks on land
Yucca Mountain
Was going to be the nation’s
repository for nuclear waste –
this plan has been canceled EVR3019/Nuclear_Waste.ppt
Nuclear Power Plants in U.S. Energy%20Use%20-%203.ppt
Three Mile Island
• March 29, 1979, a reactor near Harrisburg, PA lost
coolant water because of mechanical and human
errors and suffered a partial meltdown
• 50,000 people evacuated & another 50,000 fled
• Unknown amounts of radioactive materials
• Partial cleanup & damages cost $1.2 billion
• Released radiation increased cancer rates.
• April 26, 1986, reactor explosion (Ukraine) flung
radioactive debris into atmosphere
• Health ministry reported 3,576 deaths
• Green Peace estimates32,000 deaths;
• About 400,000 people were forced to leave their
• ~160,000 sq km (62,00 sq mi) contaminated
• > Half million people exposed to dangerous levels of
• Cost of incident > $358 billion
Effects of
Chernobyl nuclear
Fukushima disaster – Japan, March 2011
Earthquake, followed by tsunami –
subsequent loss of power to cool reactors,
plus fire at plant
Use of Nuclear Energy
• U.S. phasing out - ???
• Some countries (France, Japan) investing
• U.S. currently ~7% of energy nuclear
• No new U.S. power plants ordered since 1978
• 40% of 105 commercial nuclear power expected
to be retired by 2015 and all by 2030
• North Korea is getting new plants from the US
• France 78% energy nuclear
Energy &
Mineral resources
Comparison of Supplies of Nonrenewable
Energy Sources: