VRQ Level 2 Eggs

VRQ2 Theory
Unit 712
UPK 712
Eggs as a Food source
Eggs are an ancient
source of food
They are self contained
incubators for growth
Everything required for
the complete growth of a
animal that hatches from
an egg is enclosed within
Therefore it is a complete
source of nutrition for
How an egg is formed
Process Takes approx 25
Yolk forms around Germ
cell (hen chromosomes)
mainly fat and proteins
Detaches from ovary and
begins journey down the
4 layers of egg white, 1
antimicrobial membrane,
Stage 1
Stage 2
Stage 3
Stage 4
Stage 5/6
Nutrition of Eggs
High in protein
High in Fat
High cholesterol levels
Low in Sodium
Low in carbohydrates
As Eggs get Older
As an Egg gets older changes take place that are visible and
that will effect the quality of the dishes being produces.
Those changes are:
• Air sac increases in size due to evaporation of
water vapour through the pores in the shell.
• Water is transferred to the yolk from the white
so the yolk membrane weakens causing the yolk
to flatten.
• Yolk becomes displaced and settles against the
shell instead of being firmly suspended in the white,
due to weakening of chalazae strands.
• Thicker white weakens and becomes watery.
Quality Points
Clean Shell
Undamaged Shell
Within use by date
Quality marks
Origin and type
Correct size
Egg Quality
Under European law there are two classes of egg
quality: A & B.
Grade A : eggs are the highest grade. They are
naturally clean, fresh eggs, internally perfect with shells
intact and the air sac not exceeding 6mm in depth. The
yolk must not move away from the centre of the egg on
rotation. Grade A eggs are sold as shell eggs.
Grade B: eggs are broken out and pasteurised. In
addition, there is another class of eggs called industrial
eggs which are for non-food use only and are used in
products such as shampoo and soap.
The Lion Quality mark
The Lion Quality mark on egg shells and egg boxes means that the eggs have
been produced to the highest standards of food safety.
The Lion Quality Code of Practice was launched in 1998 and includes
compulsory vaccination against Salmonella Enteritidis of all pullets destined
for Lion egg-producing flocks, independent auditing, improved traceability of
eggs and a "best-before" date stamped on the shell and pack, as well as onfarm and packing station hygiene controls.
Battery Hens
(laying cage system)
50% of Total Egg
In the UK
Typically a laying cage system consists of a series of at least three
tiers of cages. The cages have sloping mesh floors so that the eggs
roll forward out of the reach of the birds to await collection.
Since 2003 new enriched cages where installed with 750cm² per
bird along with a nest, perching space and a scratching area.
Before this conventional cages required a minimum of 550cm² per
bird. Food is supplied in troughs fitted to the cage fronts and an
automatic water supply is provided. The units are kept at an even
temperature and are well ventilated. Electric lighting provides an
optimum day length throughout the year.
Free Range
45% of Total Egg
In the UK
The Welfare of Laying Hens Directive stipulate that for eggs to be termed 'free
range', hens must have continuous daytime access to runs which are mainly
covered with vegetation and with a maximum stocking density of 2,500 birds per
Barn System’s
5% of Total Egg
In the UK
In the barn system the hen house has a series of perches and feeders at different
levels. The Welfare of Laying Hens stipulate a maximum stocking density of 9 hens
per square metre of useable floor space. Water and feeding troughs are raised so
that the specially prepared food is not scattered. Electric lighting is provided to
give an optimum day length throughout the year. At the end of the laying period
the house is completely cleared and disinfected.
Eggs from hens fed rations having ingredients that were grown
without pesticides, fungicides, herbicides or commercial fertilizers. No
commercial laying hen rations ever contain hormones. Due to higher
production costs and lower volume per farm, organic eggs are more
expensive than eggs from hens fed conventional feed. The nutrient
content of eggs is not affected by whether or not the ration is organic
“Hens producing organic eggs are always free range. In
addition, hens must be fed an organically produced diet and
ranged on organic land.”
Hygiene Issues
If sourced from a farm,
could be a host for
Should be stored in the
fridge in airtight box to
prevent the absorption of
strong odours
Safest type is pasteurised
Salmonella free
Longer shelf life
Ease of use (tetra
Safe for uncooked dishes
(mousses, mayonnaises)
Egg Facts
UK production
791 million dozen eggs
18 million dozen eggs
Total UK consumption
Retail market
No of UK laying birds
Average yield per bird pa
660 million eggs
32.9 million
Other Eggs
Duck, Gulls,
Goose and Plover
Cooking Eggs
There are many recipes for cooking eggs all of them fall into one of
the following basic cooking methods :
En Cocotte
Sur le Plat
Classical Egg Garnishes
These are dependant upon the named dish, but
there is a theme to the garnishes.
Scrambled Eggs; fried bread
En cocotte, sauce of appropriate type in a thin
thread around
Hard Boiled, roux based white sauce
Poached or soft boiled, dependant upon the
name, but usually nape with the sauce and
decorated with the appropriate garnish
Omelettes, Sur le Plat; dependant upon name
Questions ????