PPT: Common Core 110 Contingency Operations

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NAVEDTRA 43904-C

SEABEE

COMBAT WARFARE

COMMON CORE

UNIT 110

CONTINGENCY

OPERATION

FUNDAMENTALS

OCTOBER 2010

Contingency Ops

• References:

• [a] https://abfcview.navfac.navy.mil

• [b] COMCBPAC/COMCBLANT Instruction 10914.2, Maintenance

Management Program for Naval Construction Force (NCF) Camps

• [c] NAVEDTRA 14265, Utilitiesman Basic, Vol. 1

• [d] NAVEDTRA 14259, Utilitiesman Advanced

• [e] NAVEDTRA 14233, Naval Construction Force/Seabee 1 & C

• [f] NAVEDTRA 14234, Seabee Combat Handbook, Volume 1

• [g] NWP 4-04, Naval Civil Engineer Operations

• [h] JFOB, Joint Forward Operating Base Force Protection Handbook

Engineer Support Plans

PQS Question 110.1

Plans (ESP)

Discuss Engineer Support

Reference

: (g, ch 4, p. 4-1, par 4.2)

Engineer Support Plans

• Navy and Marine Corps service component commanders identify the engineering mission support for logistics and force-level requirements. ESPs that guide engineers’ efforts are then developed as an appendix to

Annex D (Logistics) of OPLANs or operation order (OPORD).

Request for Forces

PQS Question 110.2

(RFF) process

Discuss the Request for Forces

Reference

: (g, ch 4, p. 4-1, par 4.3)

Request for Forces

• Naval civil engineering force units and individual augments must be requested through the request for forces (RFF) process to augment a component or JTF organization.

CEC officers are on combatant and service component engineer staffs.

• For further information on the RFF process, refer to JP 1-0, Joint Doctrine for Personnel

Support to Joint Operations.

Contingency Planning and Crisis

Action Planning

PQS Question 110.3

Discuss the difference between

Contingency planning and Crisis Action planning.

Reference

: (g, ch 4, p. 4-2, par 4.7.1. and 4.7.2)

Contingency Planning and Crisis

Action Planning

Contingency planning is performed in a continuous cycle that usually begins with the publication of a new CPG and is designed to develop joint OPLANs, CONPLANs (with and without TPFDD), or functional plans to support the national military strategy. Contingency planning facilitates the transition to crisis action planning.

Crisis Action Planning is based on current events and conducted in time-sensitive situations and emergencies using assigned, attached, and allocated forces and resources. Crisis action planners base their plan on the actual circumstances that exist at the time planning occurs and, where possible, an existing OPLAN. CAP uses the JOPP described above, but steps may be condensed to fit the situation.

Engineer Support Plans

PQS Question 110.4

Discuss the following as it relates to General Engineering planning tools and considerations. a. ESP (par. 4.9.1) b. ABFC (par. 4.9.3) c. Facilities (par. 4.9.4) d. Real Estate (par. 4.9.5) e. Environment (par. 4.9.6) f. HN Support (par. 4.9.7)

Reference

: (g, ch. 4, p. 4-6)

Engineer Support Plans

ESP. Engineering planning is an integral part of the JOPP. The ESP identifies the minimum essential facilities and engineering capabilities needed to support the commitment of military forces. Based on service component input, unified commanders are responsible for preparing the ESP. Civil engineer planners consider the following issues when preparing input for an ESP: a. HN restrictions imposed on the use of bases and installations.

b. Assumptions regarding the availability of critical HNS.

c. Major construction resources to be allocated.

d. Anticipation of sustainment of Class IV resources. ESP should consider whether or not the Class IV items will need to be contracted locally vice shipped from other sources.

Consider use of LOGCAP, AFCAP, and NAVFAC GCC program management and contract support team requirements.

e. Desired standards of construction (initial or temporary).

f. A provision for force withdrawal, such as base denial and movement of relocatable residual assets.

ABFC

ABFC. The ABFC system, known as the NAVFAC P-437, has two volumes. The first volume is a list of components, facilities, and assemblies. The second volume contains drawings. It includes standard designs, bills of material, weight, cube, construction man-hour analysis, and fuel requirements. NAVFAC publishes the

ABFC system electronically in CD-ROM format or at http://abfcview.navfac.navy.mil/desk1000.cfm.

a. Components are the highest level of information. They consist of personnel, material, facilities, and equipment and are designed and organized into a configuration that performs a mission or task. An example of a component is the

P25, the NMCB TOA.

b. Facilities are engineering projects such as bunkers and preengineered buildings. An example of a facility is a tent camp.

c. Assemblies are descriptive building blocks that detail National Stock

Numbers. Assemblies are used to develop concise, quick, and consistent estimates for material and labor requirements. An example of an assembly is a general-purpose medium tent.

Facilities

Facilities. The unified commander is responsible for the coordination of planning, programming, and construction of facilities to meet the requirements of service component forces. Facility requirements are consistent with operational requirements, duration of need, and forces to be supported. Initial or temporary construction standards and facility requirements, as required by the mission, determine the types of materials and construction techniques used in constructing facilities in support of contingency operations. Naval civil engineers utilize standard facility designs, which may be modified in response to operational, environmental, and unusual site and customer requirements. Civil engineer planners identify facility requirements for contingency operations.

Real Estate

The unified commander is responsible for coordinating real estate requirements of the service component forces. Navy and Marine Corps component commanders conduct real estate activities such as determining requirements for their forces; selecting, acquiring, maintaining, and disposing of property; claims processing; and records maintenance. Civil engineer planners consider aspects of acquisition and/or leasing real estate in support of engineer operations.

Environment

Environmental. Naval civil engineer planners consider the effect of the planning of operations on the environment in accordance with HN agreements; environmental laws and regulations; and U.S. federal, state, and local environmental laws and standards. Environmental considerations are found in Annexes L and Q of an

OPORD and/or OPLAN. Environmental considerations include:

– a. Policies and responsibilities to protect and preserve the environment

– b. Certification of local water sources by appropriate medical personnel

– c. Solid and liquid waste management

• (1) Open dumping and burning

• (2) Gray water disposal

• (3) Pesticide disposal

• (4) Human waste disposal

• (5) Hazardous material disposal.

– d. Hazardous materials management, including the potential use of pesticides

– e. Protection of indigenous animals and vegetables

Environment

– f. Archaeological and historical preservation

– g. Contingency spill plans.

HN Support

Unified commanders obtain authority for negotiations with HNs through channels of the Joint

Staff, the SecDef, and the Department of State. Marine Corps and Seabee engineer planners identify requirements for HNs and forward their requests through the commander, joint task force (CJTF) or the service component commanders to the unified commander. The types of

HN logistic support that engineer planners request, subject to agreements and restrictions, include:

– a. Petroleum, oils, and lubricants

– b. Transportation

– c. Telecommunications

– d. Civilian labor

– e. Rear area protection

– f. Facilities

– g. Contracting

– h. Equipment acquisition

– i. Supplies

– k. Health services support

– l. Waste disposal.

Logistical Support

PQS Question 110.5

Discuss the following logistics support considerations for Seabee units.

– a. Supply (par. 4.11.1)

– b. Maintenance (par. 4.11.2)

– c. Transportation (par. 4.11.3)

– d. General Engineering (par. 4.11.4)

– e. Health Services (par. 4.11.5)

– f. Medical Treatment Facilities (par. 4.11.5.1)

– g. Medical Evacuations (par. 4.11.5.2)

– h. Other Services (par. 4.11.6)

Reference

: (g, ch 4, p. 4-11)

Logistical Support

Supply

is the receipt, storage, issue, and resupply of materiel for conducting operations. After depletion of Seabee-deployed stocks, the supported JTF resupplies for Class I, III, IV, V, VIII, and IX materials. The JTF shall also source the air or sealift required to move Class VII and IX supplies that are obtained through NFELC and distributed through JTF logistic channels.

Maintenance

consists of actions necessary to preserve, repair, and ensure continued operations and effectiveness. Seabee units use the material and maintenance management system and are organized through intermediate (first and second) levels of maintenance on organizational CESE. Seabees also conduct organizational (Echelon II) maintenance on assigned communications and weapons systems (less optics) and electronic assets. Support for maintenance above these levels is required.

Transportation

is the movement of units, personnel, equipment, and supplies from their point of origin to their final destination. Seabee units have organic transportation assets to move equipment and supplies within the theater. They may request augmenting transportation from the supported JTF for movement of

Class IV materials to their project sites or to displace the unit in a single movement.

Logistical Support

General Engineering

is deliberate and oriented in CSS. Seabees have a robust capability to conduct general engineering. BDR, maintenance of facilities, and vertical and horizontal construction are examples of the engineering operations conducted by the Seabees. Seabees have limited combat engineering capability and limited engineer reconnaissance capability:

– 1. Do not clear mines

– 2. Do not place mines

– 3. Do not conduct explosive ordnance disposal

– 4. Do not conduct explosive demolition.

Health Services

maintain, preserve, and restore the combat power of the force in war and peace. Only NMCB units have a robust organic medical capability.

The NMCBs are billeted with a medical officer, dental officer, and independent duty corpsman plus additional corpsmen. Those medical assets support firstresponder-capability care. This includes routine and limited emergency medical and dental support at the point of initial injury or illness. Limited ancillary capability consists of preventive medicine, first aid/buddy aid, pharmacy, ophthalmic, medical laboratory, and radiology.

Logistical Support

Medical Treatment Facility

Seabee units have an organic medical treatment facility with limited patient treatment capabilities located in each NMCB. They are capable of only initial treatment and stabilization for serious injuries prior to medical evacuation. Although the NMCB aid station has an assigned medical staff, the medical equipment organic to the Seabee unit is for a small detachment operated by one corpsman to perform organic medical and limited dental care.

Medical Evacuations

Health service support to Seabee units attached to a JTF is provided in the same manner in which medical care is provided to other JTF elements. Seabees follow established procedures for the medical evacuation of casualties.

Other Services

Seabee organizations require support in field exchange services, security, legal services, civil affairs, and graves registration. Although

NMCBs are self-sufficient upon deployment, the situation dictates whether or not augmentation CSS from the supported JTF is required in the following areas: disbursing (U.S. Navy interface), exchange services, legal services, mortuary services, postal services, security support, and civil affairs support.

Construction Standards

PQS Question 110.6

construction standards.

Explain the following

– a. Initial/Expedient (par. 5.2.1)

– b. Temporary (par. 5.2.2.1)

– c. Permanent (par. 5.2.3.1)

Reference

: (g, ch 5, p. 5-1)

Construction Standards

Initial/Expedient

- Naval civil engineering forces apply the initial/expedient construction standard for facilities construction in a tactical environment when response times are at a premium for rapidly deploying engineering resources to limited support locations. Naval civil engineering forces primarily use and tailor P-437 ABFC designs to sitespecific locations that require austere facilities intended for immediate operational use.

Temporary -

Naval civil engineering forces apply the temporary construction standard for facilities construction when a location requires that it extend the efficiency of operations for use for as long as 24 months and when the naval civil engineering forces are required to provide sustained operations. When mission requirements dictate, the temporary construction standard replaces the initial/expedient construction standard. Naval civil engineering forces conduct temporary-construction-standard readiness training through fleet exercises to ensure proficiency in temporary construction missions, such as knowing temporary construction standards for:

Construction Standards

– 1. Building or modular systems and the ABFC standard design system

– 2. Expeditionary airfield construction

– 3. Electrical power generation and distribution systems

– 4. Fortifications

– 5. Forward arming and refueling points

– 6. Roads

– 7. Soil stabilization

– 8. Sewage disposal

– 9. Troop housing

– 10. Water storage and distribution.

Construction Standards

Permanent

- Naval civil engineering forces build permanentconstruction-standard facilities for HN, supporting stability and security operations for U.S. forces with increased efficiency for long-term sustained operations. Naval civil engineering forces must conform to either military, industrial, or commercial construction standards chosen by the directing authority when constructing permanent facilities. Naval civil engineering forces conduct permanent construction-standard readiness training during peacetime deployments. They participate in fleet exercises and conduct contributory support projects at commands to ensure proficiency in permanent construction missions. Permanentconstruction-standard training includes instruction in the following areas:

– 1. Asphalt paving

– 2. Bridging, nonstandard

– 3. Buildings

– 4. Concrete runways

Construction Standards

– 5. Port facilities and navigational structures

– 6. Roads

– 7. Steel frame and block buildings

– 8. Steel structures

– 9. Utility distribution and storage systems.

Battlespace Functions

• PQS Question 110.7 Explain the three types of engineering Battlespace Functions that are assigned to the Seabees:

• Reference (g, ch. 5, p. 5-2, par 5.3)

Battlespace Functions

• General Engineering

• Combat Engineering

• Geospatial Engineering

Operational Situations

PQS Question 110.8

Discuss the following operational situations: a. Joint (par. 5.5.1) b. Maritime Prepositioning Force (MPF) (par. 5.5.2) c. Counteracting Restriction to Movement (par. 5.5.4) d. Jungle (par. 5.5.3) e. Mountain (par. 5.5.5) f. Cold Weather (par. 5.5.6) g. Desert (par. 5.5.7) h. Gap Crossing (par. 5.5.8) i. Military Operations in Urban Terrain (MOUT) (par. 5.5.9)

Reference

: (g, ch. 5, p. 5-8)

Operational Situations

Joint Operations

- Naval civil engineering forces train to know how other service and coalition engineers and nongovernmental organizations operate, and how naval civil engineering operations fit into the joint environment.

Maritime Prepositioning Force Ops

- Goal of the maritime prepositioning force.

The rapid establishment of a combat-ready MAGTF ashore is accomplished by combining the rapid movement of the MAGTF fly-in-echelon (FIE), made up of MPF enablers and main party personnel, through strategic airlift with MAGTF equipment and supplies loaded aboard a forward-deployed MPSRON. There are three

MPSRONs in the maritime prepositioning force. To assist the MAGTF with the offload and staging of the prepositioned sets on each MPSRON, a Navy support element (NSE) is required, to which PHIBCBs are an integral part.

Counteracting Restriction to Movements

- When a unit exceeds the ability to maneuver around natural and artificial terrain, engineers advise unit commanders about counteracting restrictions to movement in a range of operational situations and environments. In their evaluation, engineers consider the unit’s tactical situation, mission assignment, operational environment, engineering capabilities, and equipment availability. They weigh the impact of the tactical situation on engineer tactics, required equipment, and speed of mission accomplishment in order to formulate recommendations to the unit commander.

Operational Situations

Jungle -

Engineering operations in the jungle include road construction, stream crossing, expeditionary airfield construction, water treatment, mine warfare, and mapping.

Mountain Ops

- Engineer training that supports mountain operations includes cable and rope rigging, demolition of rock formations, mountain climbing, mountain road clearing and construction, employment of helicopters, expedient stream crossing, and bridge construction.

Cold Weather Ops

- Cold weather operations occur in arctic regions and subarctic areas of North America and Eurasia. The Arctic consists of polar seas, polar land, and ice pack areas. The Arctic is a cold, snow-covered desert with an 8-inch average annual rainfall. Vegetation is dwarfed and scrubby in arctic regions. The subarctic is an area of extremes with hot summers and very cold winters. Arctic/subarctic lines of communications consist of roads, trails, and limited water travel. Seabees do not train for this type of environment; however, UCTs do conduct arctic dive training operations. Seabees would need to be outfitted with cold weather

Operational Situations

Desert -

Desert terrain shares physical characteristics such as a lack of water and vegetation, extreme temperatures, bright sunshine and moonlight, dust storms, and dry river channels. Operations in the desert, complicated by the task of providing an adequate supply of water, increased requirements for camouflage assistance and deception, and special problems in field fortifications, significantly task engineering resources.

Gap-Crossing

- Gap crossings are second only to amphibious operations in complexity and vulnerability. A gap-crossing operation is similar to a bridging operation. Seabees do not have standard bridging assets in their TOA. Hasty, deliberate, and retrograde gap-crossing operations require advanced planning for training, coordination, and equipment. C2, planning, unit relationships and responsibilities, and participation by various units are different with each type and size of crossing operation.

Military Operations on Urbanized Terrain

- Seabees support construction projects in urban and populated areas even though they are not an offensive force. The presence of population and man-made construction complicates MOUT. The number of Seabees training in MOUT continues to increase. UCTs conduct limited MOUT training since a majority of their work at seaports is expected to be in urban environments.

JFOB

PQS Question 110.9

Discuss the following Joint Forward

Operating Base (JFOB) site selection and layout considerations: a. General (p. 5-6) b. Perimeter Security (p. 5-7) c. Critical Assets (p. 5-8) d. Utilities (p. 5-9) e. Occupied Structures (p. 5-10) f. Commercial/Service Access (p. 5-10)

Reference

: (h, ch. 5)

JFOB

Perimeter Security

– Layered Defense. Design a layout that incorporates the concept of a layered defense in depth. Incorporate perimeter security devices

(barriers, ECPs lighting, intrusion detection and surveillance systems

(IDS), access control equipment, etc.).

Critical Assets

– Asset Location, Visual Surveillance, Defensible Space, Use of Available

Space, Access Routes, Vehicle Parking, Exterior Signage, Trash

Receptacles, Vegetation, Separation Distance, Structures

Utilities

• Utility Access, Utility Support, Multiple Power Sources, Public Address

System, Perimeter Penetration, Water Treatment and Storage, Signage,

Storage Tanks and Operational Facilities, Communication Networks e. Occupied Structures (p. 5-10) f. Commercial/Service Access (p. 5-10)

JFOB

Occupied Structures

- Site, Personnel, Open Space, Structural Hardening,

Retrofit/Hardening Techniques, Standoff Distance, Windows, Safety

Window Frames, Doors, Asset Concealment, Pedestrian Traffic, Trash

Receptacle.

Commercial/Service Access

- Vehicle Delivery Locate, Signage, Driveways

Tent Camp Layout

PQS Question 110.10

Explain the fundamentals of a tent camp layout in relation to the following:

• a. Latrines from messing facilities (p. 10-40) b. Latrines from water supplies (p. 10-40) c. Garbage pits from water supplies (p. 10-42) d. Garbage pits from messing (p. 10-42)

Reference

: (f, ch. 10)

Tent Camp Layout

Latrines from messing facilities (p. 10-40) - Latrines must be 100 yards from messing facilities.

Latrines from water supplies (p. 10-40) - Latrines must be 100 yards from water supplies

Garbage pits from water supplies (p. 10-42) - Garbage pits are usually not more than 30 yards from mess areas

Garbage pits from messing (p. 10-42) - Garbage pits are not less than 100 yards from water supplies.

Leach Fields

PQS Question 110.11

: Discuss the purpose of leach fields.

Reference

: (ref. d, ch. 10, p. 10-37)

Leach Fields

Leach fields are an integral component of a septic tank individual sewage disposal system. Leaching fields may be referred to as a tile fields or absorption trenches.

The function, testing, construction, and maintenance techniques of this component remain the same. The lines are build of 4-inch PVC perforated pipe. The conditions below are important for the proper functioning of a leaching field:

Groundwater levels well below that of the leaching field

Soil of satisfactory leaching characteristics within a few feet of the surface extending several feet below the leaching pipe.

Subsurface drainage away from the field

Adequate area

Freedom from polluting drinking water supplies, particularly from shallow wells in the vicinity.

Camp Maintenance

PQS Question 110.12

:Discuss the following as it pertains to camp maintenance: a. Trouble desk (p. 6-6) b. Three types of work (p. 6-9) c. Operator inspection (p. 6-23) d. Control inspections (p. 6-22) e. Maintenance inspection (p. 6-18)

Reference

: (e, ch. 6)

Camp Maintenance

Trouble Desk

- The trouble desk attendant receives all customer trouble calls, enters this information into the trouble desk log and fills out emergency/service authorization (ESA) forms. The attendant makes sure that ESA forms are properly routed and that outstanding

ESAs are completed within the required deadlines. Normally, all facility history jackets are maintained at the trouble desk.

Types of work

–Emergency/service work, specific job orders, and SJOs.

Operator Inspection

– Operator inspections consist of examining, lubricating, and making minor adjustments. Operator inspections of constantly attended equipment are another form of PM, but they are performed by the operator assigned to the equipment as part of the day-to-day responsibilities.

Camp Maintenance

Control Inspection

– A control inspection reviews all camp facilities to determine the maintenance required during the deployment to preserve or improve the condition of camp structures and property. It is the foundation of the camp maintenance program and work load.

Maintenance Inspection

– The inspection branch (PM/COSAL coordinator) is responsible

• for the following specific actions:

1. Inventory all camp equipment that meets the following criteria

— Impairs the operational efficiency of the unit should a breakdown occur.

— Presents a safety hazard in the event of breakdown or damage.

— Is more cost effective to repair than replace.

— Requires a long lead time to replace or procure repair parts

Water purification

PQS Question 110.13

: Discuss the following: a. Potable water [ch. 2, p. 2-27] b. Chlorination [ch. 7, p. 7-6] c. Superchlorination [ch. 2, p. 2-28]

Reference

: (ref. d, ch. 10, p. 10-37)

Drinking water

Potable water:

Water that does not contain pollution, contamination, or infective agents and is considered satisfactory for drinking

Non-Potable water:

Water that may contain objectionable or infective agents and is considered unsafe and/or unpalatable for drinking

Drinking Water

Chlorination:

Chlorination is the most common method of disinfecting potable water.

• Water from systems where sanitary, physical, operating, defects, or other special hazards are known to exist must be chlorinated to specific bacterial levels. Residual of at least

2.0 ppm.

Drinking Water.

Super Chlorination:

Super Chlorination is the application of chlorine in dosages far in excess of the chlorine demand for disinfecting.

• Super Chlorination is accomplished by chlorinating the water in a container or distribution system to at least 100 parts per million (ppm).

ABFC System

PQS Question 110.14:

Discuss the three parts of the

Advance Base Functional Component (ABFC) system and explain their relationships:

Reference

: (ref. d, ch. 10, p. 10-37)

ABFC

• Part 1, Component Site Plan

- Component is defined as a grouping of personnel and materials that has a specific function or mission at an advanced base.

Example: NMCB is a component

ABFC

• Part 2, Facility Drawings

- Lists and describes by assembly number that assembly requirement for each facility

- Example: 250 Man Tent Camp

ABFC

• Part 3, Assembly Drawing

- Lists line-item requirements by nation

Stock Number (NSN) for each assembly

- Example: Tent 16 x 32

ABFC View

PQS Question 110.15

: Discuss the ABFC View Program and how it facilitates contingency planning.

Reference

: (ref. a)

ABFC

• The ABFCview document is the electronic version of the NAVFAC P-437 Facilities

Planning Guide. It identifies structures and supporting facilities of the Navy ABFC system. It was developed to make preengineered facility designs, material requirement, and labor requirement available to planners at all levels.

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