FIFRA Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act

Pests, Pollinators and
Sam Berizzi, Katie
Rohn, Katie Orem,
Paige Gasparino
Negative and Positive Effects
• By their very nature, most pesticides create
some risk of harm - Pesticides can cause harm
to humans, animals, or the environment
because they are designed to kill or otherwise
adversely affect living organisms. ( negative)
• At the same time, pesticides are useful to
society - Pesticides can kill potential diseasecausing organisms and control insects, weeds,
and other pests. ( positive)
Negative Effects of Pesticides- Food
• Farmers and their families
and other people who use
chemical pesticides
regularly are at greatest
risk for achieving toxic
levels in their bodies.
• Pesticides are carried on
through wind, leaves,
residue on produce, remain
inside produce and
animals, and run off into
open water contaminating
public water
• Pests damage crops
that are valuable to
our food production
• Pests compete with
our crops initially
because they are like
every other biotic
being, they try to
survive and
• Targeting pests and
animals by using
pesticides effects the
agriculture that is being
sprayed as well.
• Three quarters of the
pesticides are applied to
agricultural land
• 32 million is spent on
pesticides, with one third
of the total spent in the
Persistence of pesticides
• Break down easily= less persistent
• Don’t break down easily= more persistent
• The Chemical ( pesticide) has the ability to
obtain its molecules and maintain its
physical, chemical and functional
characteristics through the environment
• The chemicals are easily transported with
out being lost
• Because Pesticides are easily transmitted through run
off which consequently goes into the water we drink we
have to be careful of how we transport the pesticides to
the pests.
• Pesticides also cause pollution that we consume directly
from the atmosphere and the air.
• Fruit and vegetables most likely to be contaminated with
pesticides include: apples, bell peppers, celery, cherries,
grapes, nectarines, peaches, pears, potatoes,
raspberries, spinach, and strawberries.
• The mutual evolutionary influence
between two species- usual mutualismdependent on one another.
• The number of species know to have
evolved resistance to pesticides have
grown over the decades.
• Pesticides and Plants are a prime example
of coevolution mainly because the
relationship is predator and prey in this
situation because one gets affected which
is the pests and the pesticides initially take
over the land that the pests were invading
( Brennan 269)
“Pesticide Treadmill”
• As one uses a pesticide, individuals that are not
killed by it pass on their traits so they are
therefore resistant to the pesticide.
• Their offspring inherit the same traits, making
them resistant to the pesticide as well
• For example- If an insect that survive from the
pesticide mates with another insect that is
resistant of the same pesticide, the population
will begin to go.
• The pesticide applications will cease to be
effective any longer
Effects of the “Treadmill”
• Because more pests
are becoming
resistant to pesticides
this causes farmers to
adopt new and more
potent poisons.
• There is no end to the
toxic spiral!
Facts about Resistance
• As of 2007 there were more than 2700
know cases of resistance by 550 species
to over 300 pesticides ( Brennan &
Withgott 269)
Broad Spectrum Pesticides
• Insecticides ( pesticide used against insects)
that are not selective, but may be even more
toxic to the natural enemy than to the pest or
have an impact on a wide range of pests and
natural enemies, are called broad-spectrum.
• This broad spectrum pesticide overall has a
worse effect on the land and the crops we
“attempt” to grow
• Kill many kinds of pests
Examples of BSP
• organophosphate (e.g., malathion,
• carbamate (e.g., carbaryl–Sevin,
• pyrethroid (e.g., cyfluthrin–Baythroid,
• foliar-applied neonicotinoid (imidacloprid–
Provado, acetamiprid–Assail) insecticides.
Narrow Spectrum (selective)
• These are developed
to kill specific
organism types and
are good at doing so
Examples of NSP
Examples are algicides for algae
avicides for birds
fungicides for fungi
oomycetes (also called water molds, they
use surface water including precipitation
on plants, to move around).
“ Ideal Pesticides”
• The ideal pesticide is a molecule which is
capable of being delivered and can act on
a specific species/organism with no
harmful effects on surround environments.
• Pesticides do not harm crops that are
present in the specific ecosystems where
the pesticide is taking out the pest.
• Not to much toxicity (Cloyd 1)
First Generation Pesticides
• Contain primarily natural substances
• Consists of sulfur, lead, tobacco, arsenic and
mercury compounds
• Acts as an insecticide, which kills of insects
to protect crops
• 2 types: pyrethrum and rotenone
• Pyrethrum is accessed through the heads of
chrysanthemum flowers
• Rotenone is obtained from the roots of
different types of tropical forest legumes
Second Generation Pesticides
• Includes insecticides, herbicides and
• Insecticides- kills insects
• Herbicides- kills weeds
• Fungicides- kills fungi
• Nematocides- kills roundworms
• Rodenticides- kills rats/mice
Types of Insecticides
• Chlorinated hydrocarbons- Many different types
of organic molecules
• Organophosphates- Affect an important enzyme
called acetylcholinesterase, which is found in
• Carbamates- Consists of inorganic compounds
• Botanicals- Consists of chemicals that are taken
from plants (natural chemicals), not as toxic as
other insecticides
• Microbotanicals- Taken from small parts of plants
Insecticides: DDT
Type of pesticide known since 1874
Also known as the “atomic bomb” of pesticides
It is the first of the second generation pesticides
It is the world’s most popular pesticide
In the past DDT has been known to kill of pests for
both health and agricultural purposes (potato
beetles, coddling moth, corn earthworm, cotton
bollworm, tobacco budworms)
• June 1972: people began to worry about the
negative environmental and heath relations to
DDT and the US Environmental Protection Agency
banned its use
• However, other countries (mostly tropical)
continue to use the harmful chemical
Insecticides: Malathion
• Registered in United States in 1956
• Purpose is to kill mosquitoes (adults) is
private gardens, agricultural areas, and public
recreation areas
• It is meant to have very few risks in terms of
human health
• Few toxins are evident in the environment
after malathion use
• Malathion’s effects are still debated over in
the Environmental Protection Agency
Insecticides: Carbaryl
• Became popular in US in the 1970s
• Used for insects on fruit, cotton, lawns,
forests, nuts, and even poultry
• Highly toxic
• Can show harmful effects to humans,
aquatic animals, and non-target insects
• However, it shows little damage in birds
• Used in powder form
Insecticides: Chlordane
• It was prevalent in the United States until
• Its uses range from protecting private
gardens to yards as well as some important
crops (corn, citrus)
• 1983- Chlordane was partially banned (some
of its uses, not its use against termites) by
the EPA
• 1988- Fully banned due to the belief that it
may contribute to testicular cancer and
Insecticides: Dieldrin
• A by-product of a pesticide called Aldrin
• Popular from 1950 to 1974 for the
management of insects on different crops
• In 1987 it was prohibited for its toxicity
• Because of the harmful effects, it is not being
produced in the United States anymore
• Potential effects:
– Harmful to immune system, kidneys and
reproductive system
– Possible link to cancer and birth defects
Herbicides: Atrazine
• Used primarily on cornfields to eliminate
weeds that damage the crops
• Remains highly popular today because of
its effectiveness
• It is moderately toxic to both humans and
animals, possible negative long-term
heath effects
• Has been found in groundwater in many
different areasīƒ  damaging water supply
Fungicides: Formaldehyde
• It has many curing aspects that make it an
innovative ingredient in fungicides
• It is useful because it does not have a
strong negative affect on the organism it is
applied to and is therefore less toxic than
the main components of past fungicides
Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act
1947, amended in 1972
Objective: provide federal control of pesticide distribution,
sale, and use.
All pesticides in the US must be registered by the EPA,
registration assures that the pesticides will be properly
labeled and if used in accordance with specifications,
they will not cause damage.
Amendments led to the specific authorization of the EPA to
1) Strengthen the registration process by shifting the
burden of proof to the chemical manufacturer
2) Enforce compliance against banned and unregistered
3) Propose the regulatory framework missing from the
original law
Food Quality Protection Act of 1996
• Congress presented the EPA with an enormous
challenge of changing the way they evaluate and
regulate pesticides.
• The FQPA amended the FIFRA and FFDCA (Federal
Food Drug & Cosmetic Act)
Stricter safety standards, especially for infants & children
Complete reassessment of all existing pesticide tolerances
The bill was said to be a, “landmark bipartisan agreement
that will bring Federal regulation of the Nation’s food
producers into the 21st century” by the House Commerce
Committee Chairman Bliley
Bacillus Thuringiensis (Bt)
• A naturally occurring bacterium common in soils around
the world
• Only “microbial insecticide” in widespread use
• Bt insecticides usually are used against leaf-and needlefeeding caterpillars. Strains have been produced that
affect certain fly larvae like mosquitoes
• Bt is safe concerning people and nontarget species, like
wildlife, it is no threat to food crops
• Occasionally the bacteria enter the insect’s blood and
reproduce within the insect, most insects’ reaction to the
protein crystal is lethal
• Susceptible to degradation by sunlight
• Does not kill rapidly, short shelf life
Cactus Moth
Objective: destroy prickly pear cacti
This organism has been used from Australia to South
Africa as a biocontrol agent to remove the plants from
agricultural lands, where cacti are seen as problematic
Now, the cactus moth is becoming invasive in areas such
as the Australia, the Caribbean, Alabama, and Florida. It
is attacking native prickly pear that are rare to the area
“The cactuses also play an important role in holding soil in
desert systems as well. We would likely see some
problems with soil erosion, which can really be severe in
the desert once you lose that fragile cover.” John
Randall (director of The Nature Conservancy’s Global Invasive Species
Hawaiian Yellowjacket Wasps
“Little vacuum cleaners”
• Disrupt native populations of insects and spiders
• Kill/ scavenge prey from 14 different taxonomic orders,
including reptiles and birds
• Invasive due to flexible diet
• Besides killing, they collect large amounts of nectar,
decreasing the accessibility of other resources
“Rather than having a nest the size of a football, you’ll have
a nest the size of a ’57 Buick,” Erin Wilson (lead author of the
study reported in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
IPM programs use current, comprehensive information on the life
cycles of pests and their interaction with the environment. This
information, in combination with available pest control methods, is
used to manage pest damage by the most economical means, and with
the least possible hazard to people, property, and the environment.
The use of multiple techniques in combination to achieve longterm suppression of pests, including biocontrol, use of
pesticides, close monitoring of populations, habitat alteration,
crop rotation, transgenic crops, alternative tillage methods, and
mechanical pest removal. (textbook)
Conservation of Pollinators is Vital. Pollinators are the unsung heroes
of agriculture.
Pollination is the process by which pollen is transferred in plants,
thereby enabling fertilization and sexual reproduction.