Chapter 18 Great Depression and World War II Question 1. Explain how crop prices helped to bring about the Great Depression. 2. Explain how the time after WWI helped to bring about the Great Depression. Great Depression and New Deal Many in South Carolina were already poor and weren’t hurt much from the economic crash •The stock market crash didn’t cause the Great Depression, it simply showed the nation the financial problems that had developed. •SC had been in depression many years before the crash. Crop prices had gone up during World War I, which caused spending to increase. However… •When the crop prices dropped many people were left with items they had purchased, but could not afford to pay the installments. •The conditions in SC continued to get worse; more banks failed and some textile mills closed their doors. Question 3. Explain how the stock market crash helped to bring about the Great Depression. Great Depression and New Deal The Stock Market did not affect the common people, but everyone felt the economic crisis. •Farmers lost their land to foreclosure and a railroad went bankrupt. –A quarter of the people in SC were unemployed –people had no money to spend in their local stores. Marriage and birth rates dropped dramatically as people postponed starting families because they could not afford them. Question 4. In the desperate times of the Great Depression, who did the people look to for help? Great Depression and New Deal Jobless men getting food at a government bread line. Young men wandered from town to town or rode the rails searching for work or a handout. Charitable organizations, such as churches and community groups, could not keep up with the need for food, clothing and shelter. People looked to their government for help. Question 5. What were President Roosevelt’s famous words about the Great Depression? Great Depression and New Deal Franklin Delano Roosevelt (FDR) oElected President of the United States in November 1932 oElected on the promise that he would bring a New Deal to the American people. oBy the time he was inaugurated in March of 1933 conditions were even worse. •Roosevelt told the people that they had “nothing to fear but fear itself.” Franklin D Roosevelt Question 6. What did FDR do during his first “Hundred Days” as President? 7. This program became known as… Great Depression and New Deal The US supported Roosevelt’s New Deal Program Roosevelt used the radio to talk to the people in fireside chats. During his first ‘Hundred Days’ in office he started an aggressive program to bring nationwide relief, recovery and reform Which became known as the New Deal Question 8. The six programs (Alphabet Agencies) of the New Deal? – What do the abbreviations stand for? – What did the agency do? Great Depression and New Deal CCC The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) Put unemployed young men to work in the nations’ parks They lived in army camps and sent most of their pay home to help their struggling families and pump money into the economy. Specific New Deal programs had a significant and long-term impact on the people of South Carolina. CCC workers in SC The Civilian Conservation Corps The CCC employed over 50,000 South Carolinians in reforestation and soil conservation projects, and in building state parks At Hunting Island, Paris Mountain, Poinsett and Myrtle Beach State Park Workers at Myrtle Beach & Kings Mountain State Parks However the CCC reflected the prejudices of the times and was racially segregated. PWA and WPA The Public Works Administration (PWA) & The Works Progress Administration (WPA) engaged in building projects that not only put people to work but also provided lasting improvements for the community. School in Georgia built by PWA •PWA built schools, libraries and courthouses as well as U.S. Navy aircraft carriers. •WPA built highways, airports, bridges and playgrounds as well as hospitals and schools. Bridge on Blue Ridge Parkway by WPA WPA Artists and writers were also employed by the WPA. They produced murals and plays Recorded interviews with former slaves that preserved the historical record of SC African Americans. African Americans did not receive their fair share of New Deal assistance and continued to be discriminated against in hiring by these programs. Poster and art from WPA Social Security Act (SSA) Although the New Deal created jobs which relieved people’s despair and economic hardship, it did not result in economic recovery. In order to prevent future depressions, the Social Security Act (SSA) was created. Provided financial protection for the elderly, the orphaned, the disabled, and the unemployed. Social Security was supported by some and protested by others Social Security Act Men signed up for SS cards, which helped to support the elderly in the US Before the Social Security Act, SC didn’t provide money to help the elderly. The cost of this program was shared by workers and their employers. The Social Security’s basic social welfare legislation created criticism. However… The poverty rate for the elderly declined significantly as a result of Social Security. Rural Electrification Act (REA) The Rural Electrification Act (REA) Brought power to many of the farms and rural regions of South Carolina. By creating power cooperatives citizens were able to get government loans and work together to provide electricity to less populated areas where commercial power companies were unwilling to string power lines. By 1940, 25% of farms had electricity. Some farmers were able to install milking machines and water pumps that made farming more profitable. Santee Cooper electricity project The Santee Cooper electricity project The largest New Deal project in SC Built hydroelectric dams on the Santee and the Cooper Rivers, creating Lake Marion and Lake Moultrie Produced power that would light the region Not only were jobs created to build the dams, but also in industries made possible by the power the project provided. Bringing electricity to the rural parts of SC improved living conditions for many. Santee Dam Question 9. Despite the efforts of the New Deal, when did the Great Depression actually end? Great Depression and New Deal Although the New Deal had a lasting impact on the US and on South Carolina, it did not end the Great Depression. The depression ended only when the US became involved in helping the Allies fight Hitler’s Germany in World War II. Question 10. How was World War II able to end the Great Depression? World War II & Economy The Great Depression ended when World War II began. The significant economic growth provided by new war jobs ended the Great Depression South Carolinians enjoyed full employment Many South Carolinians (white & African American, men & women) joined the armed forces. 11. What happened to farms when people left to find jobs in industries? World War II & Economy Marine Corps Recruit Depot at Parris Island The expansion of military bases to meet training needs at Fort Jackson, Parris Island, the naval base at Charleston and the new air base at Columbia stimulated the local economy. However, The number of people leaving the farms for jobs in mills & industries reduced the work force and left farms short handed. Question 12. What led to an increase in consumer spending after WW II? Post-WW II South Carolina Once the war ended, the United States’ economic prosperity continued. The demand for goods unavailable in wartime, and the ability to pay for them with their wartime savings, led to increased consumer spending. Returning veterans used the GI Bill benefits to get an education or start new businesses, boosting the South Carolina economy in the process.