By: Christy Fischer Erin Mascarenas Sadie Yurista Introduction Plastics • have been around since the mid 1800s • are in everything from cosmetics to medical equipment • are known to have toxic components such as bisphenol A (BPA) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) that are capable of leaching out Because plastics are so prevalent in our lives, the environmental and health implications should be further investigated Take a moment and think… How many times a day do you, your food, or drink come in contact with plastics? Here’s just a few ways! History- Timeline 1839 1863 1872 Beginning of Plastic Era 1891 1908 PVC first created Celluloid developed to replace ivory for billiard balls 1926 Cellophane developed BPA first synthesized Plasticized PVC (Vinyl) 1953 1970 Saran Wrap introduced Thermoplastic Polyester (Mylar) Commonly-Used Plastic Components BPA and DEHP are found in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polycarbonate plastics BPA is an organic building block of several plastics including type 3 and 7 plastics. DEHP is a common organic additive used to impart plasticity (fluidity) to materials such as plastic. BPA and DEHP Production • BPA is prepared by the condensation of acetone with phenol, catalyzed by an acid, such as hydrochloric acid. • DEHP is created by the reaction of phthalic anhydride with 2-ethylhexanol Other Plasticizers • Though BPA and DEHP have been well-studied, other plasticizers are now being used BPA and DEHP Uses BPA has been used in: • Coating of food cans, baby bottles, food containers, water bottles, dental sealants, toys, makeup, lotion, shampoo DEHP has been used in: • IV tubing and bags, blood-storage bags, medical devices, PVC gloves, garden hoses, food packaging, toys, paints, adhesives, floor and wall coverings BPA ADAME Absorption • Ingestion, inhalation, dermal contact Distribution • Depends on point of origin, circulated throughout body by circulatory system Action • BPA mimics estradiol – endocrine disruptor • Disrupts differentiation of androgen-dependant tissues • Causes failures in cleavage plane determination and cytokinesis due to disruption of microtubule formation (SEE LINK to sea urchin development, Control (without BPA): http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nrJcQCTvuh4 with BPA: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RJ0uGeMxgX0 • BPA has an oral LD50 of 3250 mg/kg in rats BPA ADAME (continued) Metabolism BPA has an oral LD50 of 3250 mg/kg in rats BPA conjugated with glucuronic acid to form glucuronide Nearly entire oral dose metabolized during first pass Excretion Glucuronide completely excreted via urine within 24 hours DEHP ADAME Absorption Ingestion, inhalation, dermal contact Distribution Depends on point of origin, circulated throughout body by circulatory system Action Peroxisome proliferation Inhibits fetal testicular testosterone production DEHP ADAME (continued) Metabolism DEHP hydrolyzes to mono-ethylhexyl phthalate and then to phthalate salts. The released alcohol is susceptible to oxidation to aldehyde and carboxylic acid. Excretion 90% of metabolites excreted in urine 10% of metabolites excreted in feces One-time dose no longer in plasma after 24 hours, 70% excreted from body by that time Studies on BPA Induces fibroblast differentiation into adipocytes in vitro Developmental toxicity, carcinogenic effects, and possible neurotoxicity at low doses in animal models Linked to obesity by triggering fat-cell activity and produces precursors of breast cancer Interferes with chemotherapeutic agents in breast cancer cells Studies by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention found BPA in the urine of 93% of children and adults tested in 2003–04. Studies on BPA (continued) Infants fed with liquid formula are among the most exposed and those fed from polycarbonate bottles can consume up to 13 μg/kg/day of BPA. Some animal studies show effects at much lower doses. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency considers exposures up to 50 µg/kg/day to be safe. Some research methods and funding sources have been criticized: some involved injecting BPA directly into animals and some were funded by plastic manufacturers. BPA Health Implications Low doses of BPA can mimic the body's hormones, possibly causing negative health effects. Long term low dose exposure to BPA may induce chronic toxicity in humans. High BPA levels were significantly associated with heart disease, diabetes, and abnormally high levels of certain liver enzymes. Can promote breast-cancer cell growth High exposure may be associated with recurrent miscarriage Control 2.2 µM BPA Studies on DEHP Hepatotoxic at 300 mg/kg in rodents Metabolites produced by soil microbes are more toxic than the original substance Brief oral exposure to high levels caused sperm damage in mice Reduces testicular testosterone levels in fetal and neonatal male rats Humans may be affected by lower levels than study animals DEHP Health Implications Decreased motility of sperm was noted in men exposed to phthalates Exposure to phthalates resulted in increased birth weights and longer gestation periods May be carcinogenic May be linked to kidney damage Environmental Impacts The abundance of plasticizers has lead to their and the presence of their metabolites in the environment, sometimes in high concentrations •Many plastics end up in landfills •Degradation/chemical release -soil micro-organisms degrade plasticizers -these metabolites can be more toxic than original and resist further biodegradation •Chemicals can seep into water supplies, which effects all biological life to some degree Conclusion More studies should be conducted as to the long-term effects of BPA, DEHP, and other plastic compounds on health and the environment Avoid microwaving food in plastic containers, putting plastics in the dishwasher, using harsh detergents, and avoid storing containers above room temperature to minimize leaching Recycling reduces the amount of plastic that the environment is exposed to and protects our water Refrences Barnabe, S., Beauchesne, I., Cooper, D.G., Nicell, J.A. 2008. 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