Lead Recycling Systems - MEEF Middle East Economic Engineering Forum

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Eco-friendly Recycling
ABU KHADER GROUP
Battery Recycling System
Presented by
Eng. Mohammad Al Tarawneh
Recycling Plant Manager
OUR BACKGROUND…
“
Good ideas come from
everywhere in the company.

Abu Khader group made its beginnings in the year 1937

The decentralized structure allows each company in the group to
remain focused on its own strategy and enables it to stay close to its
market segment and its customers.

Current Business Sectors :

Automotive spare parts,

Tyres,

Lubricants,

Vehicles,

Battery manufacturing,

Public transport,

Leasing and car rental,

Technology, education and real estate
”
LOCATION…
JORDAN

Abu Khader Group is among the leading business groups in Jordan and the region
with operations in Palestine, Egypt, The United Arab Emirates and Lebanon

International Storage Battery Co. is located at Abdullah bin Al Hussein Industrial
Estate (AIE)

AIE is an Industrial zone of 12 km south east of Amman, where ISBCO is
manufacturing Lead Acid Batteries.

Industries include metals, packaging, pharmaceutical 7 machine industries
employing more than 13,000 people
International Storage Battery Company (ISBCO)..

International Storage Battery
Company (ISBCO) has been
established in the year 1994

Started operation in 1995
under license from Hoppecke
GmbH, Germany
“
We are specialized in the manufacturing,
marketing and distribution of automotive
batteries, in Jordan and the region
”
International Storage Battery Company (ISBCO)..


Ours is a professionally managed
company
with
ISO-14001:2004
certification

ISBCO achieved a milestone in pursuit of
quality by receiving the ISO-9001:2000
certification

Manufacturer of high quality batteries of
DIN and JIS standards
ISBCO
has
integration
looking
adopted
the
manufacturing
forward
to
backward
strategy
establishing
a
-
Lead
Battery Scrap Recycling Plant

Presently we are using 3000 MT / year
of
Pure Lead & Lead Alloys, which consists of
85-87% out of total Raw material cost to
produce Batteries
WHY LEAD RECYCLING…

Lead Battery Scrap is a Hazardous waste and unsafe disposal creates
heavy Environmental / Health problems.

Careful
Recycling
is
essential,
beneficial
&
cost
effective
in
comparison to treatment & disposal cost.

The country do NOT have Eco-friendly recycling Plant to handle this
hazardous waste generated locally.

Presently Battery Recycling operations in Jordan are being handled by
un-organized Backyard Smelters.

Such illegal operations is serious threat TO OUR ENVIRONMENT.
“
Emissions during Recycling can be fully
controlled by effective Pollution Control
Equipments.
”
BACKYARD SMELTERS & UNCONVENTIONAL SYSTEMS…

High Demand of Lead Metal Market
- Leading to birth
of Backyard Smelters.

Shortage of Supply - Way towards Small
Unconventional / Backyard recycling Practices

Price Hikes in Metal Value -
A Favorable condition for Business But Need
“
of Eco – Friendly Recycling
More then 85% of the total Lead Battery
Scrap is required to be channelized
properly for Eco - Environment
”
TRENDS OF LEAD METAL PRODUCTION…
WESTERN WORLD REFINED LEAD PRODUCTION
THOUSAND TONS
4000
3500
3000
2500
2000
1500
1000
500
PRIMARY
04
20
03
20
02
20
01
20
00
20
99
19
98
19
97
19
96
19
95
19
94
19
93
19
92
19
91
19
19
90
0
SECONDARY

Gap between the Production from Primary & Secondary Production
has increased from 1990 to 2004

Secondary Production exceeds the Primary
LEAD METAL MARKET (GLOBAL)…
Primary & Secondary Lead Metal Production - Asia
Thousamnd Tons
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0
Year 2003
Year 2004
Primary
Year 2005
Year 2006
Secondary
Primary & Secondary Lead Metal Production - Europe
Thousand Tons
2000
1500
1000
500
0
Year 2003
Year 2004
Primary
Year 2005
Secondary
Year 2006
LEAD METAL MARKET…
THOUSAND TONS
Lead Metal Production - Year 2006
4000
3000
2000
1000
0
Asia
America
Africa
Europe
Oceania
Major Countries
Primary

Secondary
The Trend of Primary & Secondary is exceptional in Oceania
region because of Australia being a Mining Zone.
REFINED LEAD (PURE LEAD) METAL MARKET…
REFINED LEAD : MAIN PRODUCING COUNTRIES
USA
CHINA
5%
5%
4%
GERMANY
4%
29%
5%
UK
JAPAN
CANADA
FRANCE
6%
6%
MAXICO
7%
8%
21%
ITALY
KOREA REPUBLIC
KAZASKHASTHAN
Overview




Lead is a hazardous material used in many industries such as:Paints.
Additive for petrol.
Lead Acid Batteries.
Because of the high demand on lead bearing materials and pure lead for local industries, it
is most essential to secure lead sources to be able to compete locally and internationally.
In most of these industries lead can’t be retrieved, since it’s disseminated and causes
pollution, how ever lead can be retrieved through lead acid batteries in substantial quantities
for recycling.
Due to the fact that lead can be collected from lead acid batteries, and then recycled nearly
all lead can be retrieved, due to that fact most known manufacturers tend to have recycling
plants for batteries, for dual purposes environmentally and economically.
Lead acid batteries are a well established industry in Jordan, and for that industry to be able
to compete in both arena’s locally and internationally building a recycling plant is a MUST if we
want to enhance the economic and environmental factors.
Introduction

Lead is the 4th most widely
used Metal on earth

Lead has highest rate of
recycling among all Ferrous
& Non-Ferrous Metals

Lead is the only metal on
earth which retains its
100% Chemical & Physical
properties, irrespective of
any number of recycling

Worldwide production of
recycled Lead is now about
3
times
more
than
producing Prime Lead…
Composition of Lead-Acid Battery Scrap
Positive plate pack
Electrolyte-tight seaing ring
Grid plate
Negative pole
Positive plate
Negative Plate
Micro porous separator
Positive cell
connection
Valve adapter and valve
Negative cell
connection
Negative
plate pack
Component by weight
Percent
Metallic Lead
35
Lead sulphates/oxides
40
Plastic
7
Acid
15
Residuals
3
TOTAL
100
Flow Diagram of a Lead Recycling Plant
A
B
C
D
E
F
Lead Scrap Material
Furnace Metal
Slag (Discard)
Finished Metal
Dross
Filter Dust
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Rotary Furnace
After Chamber
Gas Cooler
Filter Plants
Blending/Refining Pots
Ingot Casting Machine
Exhaust Fans
Chimney
Scrap Loading Bay
Plant Layout
Work Flow Diagram
Main Stages of Lead Recycling Process
STAGE 1 – BATTERY TREATMENT SECTION
A.
Draining & Neutralization of Electrolyte

Several punches are made at the bottom
of the scraped battery after removing the vent
plugs to allow for maximum electrolyte draining
and any lead suspended in the acid to be drained
off in to a closed draining tank.

The acid is treated and neutralized in the
tank with formation of Gypsum along with lead
bearing powder \ compound which is finally fed in
furnace as a charge.

The neutralization of acid makes water,
who's PH is 7+ and further pumped as make up
water for recirculation in the wet scrubber unit.
ACID TREATMENT
UNIT
CHEMICAL
CAUSTIC STORAGE TANK
ACID TREATMENT TANK

The generated fumes and effluent gases
are captured and treated in the acid treatment
unit.
DRY DRAINED BATTERIES
Main Stages of Lead Recycling Process
STAGE 1 – BATTERY TREATMENT SECTION
B.
Breaking System & Separation of Components

Through an inclined conveyer (S.S) the
batteries are transported.

Conveyor Band Saw Cutting machine is
used.

The saw is designed with adjustable
height in order to accommodate
different types of batteries, after sawing
the battery will be released and the lid
will be removed manually, the lead plugs
and anodes will be removed from the
battery by applying a hammer.
AS A RESULTE TWO TYPES OF
MATERIALS ARE OBTAIND.

LEAD.

POLYPROPLENE.
I.
PP is crushed in to small chips then
washed before being filled in to bags for
further use either in remanufacturing of
spacers used in batteries or to be
dumped in to legal dumping site by
coordinating with the MOE.
DRY DRAINED BATTERIES
SEPARATION OF LEAD BEARING
MATERIAL & PP BOX
EMPTY PP BOXES SENT TO PP CRUSHER
CONTINUE IN NEXT SLIDE
Main Stages of Lead Recycling Process
STAGE 1 – BATTERY TREATMENT SECTION
•Polypropylene chips produced from polypropylene boxes
PP Boxes are processed in
colour batches
PP Chips are produced
PLASTIC CRUSHER
Some Lead Bearing material;
deposited at the base of
Water tank
Removed on regular
intervals using Mini
Excavator Machine
Main Stages of Lead Recycling Process
STAGE 2 - SMELTING SECTION
 Mixing
of Lead Bearing Materials
with agents & charging into
Furnace
- Furnace charging Machine
 Smelting
Lead Bearing Materials
- Rotary Furnace
 Capturing
of Effluent Gases
- Pollution Control Equipments
POLLUTION CONTROL
EQUIPMENTS
RAW MATERIAL
JUMBO LEAD BLOCKS
Main Stages of Lead Recycling Process
STAGE 2 - SMELTING SECTION




Smelting
is the recovery and treatment of
lead bearing material in used lead
acid batteries.
The charge of furnace consist of
lead bearing materials with agents.
Rotary furnace.
our purchased RF is a welldesigned and well equipped with
modern accessories and pollution
control systems.
Main Stages of Lead Recycling Process
STAGE 2 - SMELTING SECTION
Plant Layout for rotary furnace
Wet Scrubber
Blower
Rotary Furnace
Dust Collector
Cyclone
Cooling Tower
Bag House
I D Blower
Main Stages of Lead Recycling Process
STAGE 3 – REFINING SECTION
Lead Refining Process
- Refining Kettle




HOT FLUE GASSES

REMELTED LEAD
Our purchased kettle holds up to 20 MT of
un pure lead.
The sequences at our refining unit means
de-coppering, softening, de-zincing, de-tin
and de-antimony. to allow for 99.97 purity
of lead.
Lead Casting
- Automatic Ingot Casting Machine
Capturing of Effluent Gases
- Pollution Control Equipments
REFINED LEAD
AUTOMATIC INGOT CASTING MACHINE
Main Stages of Lead Recycling Process
STAGE 3 – REFINING SECTION
Kettle: 10-20 Mt per charge capacity
F.O. / Gas Burner with Pre-heater
Steering System]
Hood with Pollution Control Equipment
Automatic Ingot Casting Machine (10 MT/hr)
REFINED LEAD-(PURE LEAD)
Elements
Composition in %
Antimony (Sb)
0.001% (max)
Arsenic (As)
0.001% (max)
Tin (Sn)
0.001% (max)
Copper (Cu)
0.001% (max)
Bismuth (Bi)
0.025% (max)
Iron (Fe)
0.001% (max)
Nickel (Ni)
0.001% (max)
Silver (Ag)
0.003% (max)
Zinc (Zn)
0.001% (max)
Calcium (Ca)
0.0005% (max)
Sulphur (S)
0.0005% (max)
Aluminum (Al)
0.0005% (max)
Lead (Pb)
99.970% (min)
Pollution Control



Pollution control plays an important part in the
used Lead-Acid Battery Recycling.
Three types of waste and effluents are
generated: Solids & Slugs.
 Liquids.
 Gases.
Treatment:-the following is provided to sustain
a positive impact on the environment.
 Dust collector.
 Cyclone.
 Cooling tower.
 Spark arrestor.
 Bag Filters.
 Scrubber (wet ).
Pollution Control

All the processes and operations are
aligned with environmental aims to
ensure minimum level of emissions
and waste material.

The plant is integrated with efficient
pollution control modules, with the
objective of widespread adoption of
modern, eco-friendly designs and
technologies

Slag accounts
input material
whereas waste
guarantee that
produced.

Gases are treated as per the
pollution norms with the help of
pollution control equipments.
for (7-8)% of the
fed in the rotary,
water is treated to
no liquid waste is
Pollution Control

The most critical part of ‘Lead Recycling
Operation’ is Air Pollution Control

The plant is specifically designed to meet specific
norms and environmental standards in terms of
Ambient Air Standard
Stack Emission Standard
Effluent Discharge Standard
Solid Waste Disposal Limits
Noise Levels
Occupational Exposure
AMBIENT AIR LIMIT
(WHO Recommendations)
Pollutant
Carbon Monoxide (CO)
Sulphur Dioxide (SO2)
Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2 )
Total Particulate
Matter (TPM)
Lead (Pb)
Averaging
Time
Gravita Plant
follows
Jordan
Limit values
8 hr.
5-8.6 PPM
9 PPM
1 hr.
20-25.8 PPM
26 PPM
Annual
0.018 – 0.02 PPM
0.04 PPM
24 hr.
0.047 – 0.09 PPM
0.14 PPM
Annual
0.02-0.035 PPM
0.05 PPM
1 hr.
0.1 – 0.15 PPM
0.21 PPM
24 hr.
100- 120 µg/m3
120 µg/m3
Annual/24 hr.
0.5 / 1 µg/m3
0.5 / 1 µg/m3
STACK EMISSIONS STANDARDS…
Pollutant
Our Plant follows
Limit values
Jordan
Limit values
Soot & Dust
120-150 mg/Nm3
-
Carbon Monoxide (CO)
800-930 mg/m3
1000 mg/m3
Sulphur Dioxide (SO2)
5700-6390 mg/m3
6500 mg/m3
Smoke
Ringlemann 2
-
Lead (Pb) & it’s Compounds
8-10 mg/Nm3 as Pb
20 mg/Nm3 as Pb
Particulates (SPM)–Furnaces.
40-50 mg/Nm3
50 mg/Nm3
Particulates (SPM)-Pot
Furnaces
7-10 mg/Nm3
10 mg/Nm3
Pollution Control
Effluent Discharge Standards
Parameter/
Substance
Tolerance Limit Values
Discharge into inland
waters
pH
Total
Suspended
Solids
Lead (Pb)
Sensitive
waters
General
waters
Discharge
into
coastal
waters
Discharge
into
public
sewers
6.0-8.5
6.0-9.0
5.5-9.0
5.5-10.0
20 mg/l max.
50 mg/l
max.
150 mg/l
max.
500 mg/l
max.
0.1 mg/l
max.
0.5 mg/l
max.
1.0 mg/l
max.
5.0 mg/l
max.
Pollution Control
Lead Contents Limits
(Solid Waste Disposal on Land)
Cumulative
Limit
Annual
Limit
Soil Concentration
1000 Kg/Ha
33 Kg/Ha
550 mg/Kg limit
Maximum Permissible Noise Levels
(At Plant Perimeter)
Day Time
(0600-1800 hrs)
Night Time
(1800-0600 hrs)
65db
55db
LEAD EMISSIONS LIMITS
(Major Countries)…
Country
Maximum
Lead Level
(mg/m3)
Date
Operative
Title of
Legislation
Current
Status
Controlling
Authority
CANADA
Federal”
29a
14
1990
Secondary Lead
Smelter Regulations
Canadian
Environment
Act
Legal
Environment
Canada
SOUTH
AFRICA
50b
1972
Atmospheric
Pollution Prevention
Act (Act of 1965)
Legal
Department
of Health and
Welfare
THAILAND
30
1993
Act on Control of
Industrial Emission
Quality
Legal
Ministry of
Industry
KORIA
20c
1991
Smelting Furnace
Refining & heat
treatment facilities
UNITED
KINGDOM
10
1985
EC Directive on
Lead in Air
82/994/EEC

Air Quality
Policy
Division,
Ministry of
Environment
Legal
a. 29 mg/m3 limit applies to blast furnaces & Rotary Furnaces.

14 mg/m3, applies to holding furnaces, kettle furnaces

b. Emissions measured at ground level must not exceed 10 mg/m3.

c. Smelting Furnaces, Refining & heat treatment facility : 20mg/m3
Department
of
Environment
Occupational Safety Health Standards

Proper
plant
design
and
engineering controls in order to
protect
workers
from
occupational exposure to Lead,
including by control of process
and fugitive emissions.

Appropriate
codes
of
practice/policies/plant
hygiene
practices for the workforce and
relevant management personnel

Required education & training to
workforce
about
facilities
and
protective equipment
Occupational Safety Health Standards



Regular
monitoring
procedures
including
in-plant/perimeter
environmental monitoring of Air
Lead Levels
Screening of workforce Blood Lead
Levels at 6 months interval
Advance planning of steps to be
taken
in case of crossing of
prescribed action levels.

Remedial
actions,
which
may
include
engineering and process corrections, job
rotation of workers with High Blood Lead
Levels to no-exposure work areas
SUMMERY …
“

Lead Acid Battery Scrap Recycling is essential for
mankind as well as for Industry survival

Recent technological deployments made Lead Battery
Scrap Recycling Operations as Environment-friendly
Increasing
Environmental
Awareness
makes
this
operation more professional
& technical, which finally
leads to highly economic
viability
”
WE NEED TO STOP THEM
WHER DO WE START?
Collection of Spent Batteries.
Acid Resistant Flooring
RF POURING ARRANGMENT
Refining Kettle
THE PRODUCT
The Plant
Plant Pictures
•Entrance
•Transformer
•Hanger (Side View)
•Hanger (Upper View)
LEAD ACID BATTERY RECYCLING
ABU KHADER GROUP
AbuKhader Bldg. #1, Mecca Str.
P.O. Box 739,
Amman 11118 Jordan
Phone
: +962-6-5803600
Fax
: +962-6-5813896
Website : www.abu-khader.com
E-mail : [email protected]
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