# CoolingTowerTrainingFeb09

```Investment vs Operating cost
• The average 800,000 ft&sup2; Property has
•
•
\$24,000,000.00 replaceable physical plant. The
cost of water treatment is \$0.02 - \$0.04/ ft&sup2; to
protect this investment.
The industrial market costs are higher. A
200,000 square foot plant may have roughly
\$100,000,000 in replaceable physical plant.
Water treatment cost may be in the vicinity of
\$0.10-\$0.20 / ft&sup2;
The owner loses \$6 million per year (at 6% cost
of money) for every year of lost life as a result
of poor water treatment.
Who is in charge of your
Investment ???
• The Treatment Supplier tells you what
• Then they tell you what chemicals to use.
• Then they tell you how much they will
cost.
• Then they tell you when it is working.
• You know when its not working when
something fails.
Why treat the water?
Corrosion
Scaling
Deposition
Microbiological
Cooling Tower
50
100
200
250
300
400
500
600
700
750
800
1000
1250
1500
2000
2
1.5
3
6
7.5
9
12
15
18
21
22.5
24
30
37.5
45
60
3
0.75
1.5
3
3.75
4.5
6
7.5
9
10.5
11.25
12
15
18.75
22.5
30
Tons [Enter]:
Old Cycles [Enter]:
New Cycles [Enter]:
Savings (Gal./Day):
Savings (Gal./Year):
Cycles of Concentration
4
5
6
0.5
0.37
0.3
1
0.75
0.6
2
1.5
1.2
2.5
1.87
1.5
3
2.25
1.8
4
3
2.4
5
3.75
3
6
4.5
3.6
7
5.25
4.2
7.5
5.62
4.5
8
6
4.8
10
7.5
6
12.5
9.37
7.5
15
11.25
9
20
15
12
2000
4
8
16,560
6,044,400
Bleed Rt.
20
8.5
7
0.25
0.5
1
1.25
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
3.75
4
5
6.25
7.5
10
Gal./Day
28,800
12,240
8
0.21
0.425
0.85
1.06
1.27
1.7
2.12
2.55
2.97
3.19
3.4
4.25
5.31
6.37
8.5
Bleed Rate (Gal./min.)
Tower Tonnage
Water Savings Based on Tower Tonnage and Cycles of Concentration
Gal./Year
10,512,000
4,467,600
Economics
• General cooling economics
• Effect of scale, deposits, and Bio on
efficiency and heat transfer
POTENTIAL LOSSES
• Biofouled Condenser Tubes – 10%
• Scaled Condenser Tubes – 15%
• Scaled Boiler Tubes – 8-16%
• Equipment Losses - \$ millions
• Piping Losses - \$ millions
• Downtime - \$ priceless
Service (70% cost of your program)
Chemicals (Only 20-30% Cost of program)
Intent
What you should Expect.
• Service Defined
• Visits
• Testing
• Recordkeeping
• Inspections
• Qualifications
CORROSION CONTROL
Tower Corrosion Inhibitors
• Mild Steel
– Phosphates
• Phosphonates
• Polyphosphates
• Ortho-phosphates
– Molybdenum
– Zinc
– Silicates
– Others
– Blends
• Copper
–
–
–
–
–
Tolytriazole
BT
MBT
HRA
Others?
Closed Loop Corrosion Inhibitors
• Mild Steel
–
–
–
–
–
Molybdenum
Nitrite
Silicates
Others
Blends
• Copper
– Tolytriazole
Corrosion Control.
Corrosion Rates
Less than 1.0 mils/yr for steel and less than
0.1 mils/yr. for copper.
Less than 0.5 mils/yr. for steel and less than
0.1 mils/yr. for copper.
PHOTO MICROSCOPY REPORT
120 DAYS MILD STEEL
CHILLER 102 CW
0.62 MILS/Y
DATE INSTALLED:
6/15/98
DATE REMOVED:
10/12/98
120 DAYS MILD STEEL
CHILLER 102 COND
1.38 MILS/Y
DATE INSTALLED:
6/15/98
DATE REMOVED:
10/12/98
120 DAYS MILD STEEL
CHILLER 103 CW
0.64 MILS/Y
DATE INSTALLED:
6/15/98
DATE REMOVED:
10/12/98
120 DAYS MILD STEEL
CHILLER 103 COND
1.53 MILS/Y
DATE INSTALLED:
6/15/98
DATE REMOVED:
10/12/98
DEPOSITION CONTROL
Deposition Control.
• What is deposition.
• Control with cycles.
• Control with polymeric dispersants.
–
–
–
–
–
Polyacrylates
Sulfonated Copolymers.
Copolymers
Terpolymers
• Filtration
Microbiological Control
Microbiological Control
• Aerobic Bacteria
– slime
• Anaerobic Bacteria
– SRB, IRB
• Algae
• Legionella Bacteria
– 7 different sero groups
• Dual Alternating Biocide Program
Types of Biocides
• Oxidizing
– Chlorine
• Sodium Hypochlorite
– Bromine
• Liquid Bromine
• Sodium Bromide
– Bromine/Chlorine
Donors (solids)
• Hydantoin, Others
• Ozone, chlorine dioxide,
chlorine gas
• Non-oxidizing
–
–
–
–
–
–
Glutaraldehyde
Isothiazolone
DBNPA
Ethylene Chloride
Carbamates
Quaternary
Ammonium
Compounds
Field Testing
Bacteria Performance
• Aerobic Bacteria should at or less than
10,000 cells/ml in open condenser water
systems
• Bacteria should be at or less than 1,000
cells/ml in closed loops.
• Anaerobic Bacteria at or below 50 cells/ml
SCALE CONTROL
Scale Inhibitors and Control
• REALLY DEPENDING ON THE HARDNESS +
•
ALKALINITY TO PROVIDE THE MILD STEEL
CORROSION CONTROL.
YOU WORK ON DEPOSITON CONTROL.
• Phosphonates
– HEDP
– PBTC
• Carboxylic Acid
Industry Changes
• Companies/People
• Tubes
• Environmental
• Service Industry
ENHANCED TUBES
What you should know about enhanced
tubes and package units?
• They need flow to be protected.
• They need the correct biocide program.
• They need adequate copper protection.
• They need proper brushing.
• They need to be inspected with proper
equipment.
• They need to be eddy current tested.
Underdeposit Corrosion
ENHANCED TUBE BRUSHES
Rat Race System
Cleaning
• New Systems
– Proper Cleaning
– White Rust
– Filters
– First Year Chiller Maintenance
• Eddy current
• Corrosion
• Inspections
White Rust
“GREEN TALKING POINTS”
Water Based Systems
 Water Conservation
 Energy Conservation
 Environmental Impact
 Natural Resource Stewardship
 Human Impact
www.homeyer.com
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