End of Course Exam

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End of Course Exam
Study Guide
Define Manifest Destiny
John O’ Sullivan
Idea that the continent should be
settled from coast to coast
Explain how the
effects of the Civil
War promoted
industrialism
RR, Iron v Steel, textiles, coal,
rubber, and processed foods
Identify major
urban areas (4) of
the U.S.
Northeast
Upper
Midwest
Atlantic Coast
California
Give an example of
how crop famines
led to immigration
to the U.S.
Irish Potato Famine
How did the
California Gold
Rush contribute to
immigration?
People immigrated to work in the
mines (Chinese)
political unrest as well as
religious freedom
contribute to
immigration?
People came for a fresh start.
(Political, Religious, Financial)
What language
barriers did the
immigrants face?
Not speaking English and Ethnic
Islands
What type of
housing did most
immigrants live in?
Tenements
How did the
Nativists react to
immigration?
They were unhappy with it, but
especially Asian immigration
How did mining
advance in the late
1800’s?
Drills, dynamite, hydraulic,
pumps, etc. .
What advancements in
farming and ranching
came during the late
1800’s?
Threshers, dry farming, better
plows, barbed wire
following people w/
their industry or
technological
invention
Vanderbilt Dupont
Armour
Westinghouse Bell
Carnegie
Edison
Pullman
Rockefeller
Hershey
Swift
Vanderbilt-RR
Westinghouse- Electricity AC Power
Carnegie-Steel
Pullman- RR Cars
Hershey-Chocolate
Dupont-Chemicals
Edison- Lightbulb & phonograph
Rockefeller- Oil
Swift- Meats
Armour-Processed Meat “Meat Barons”
Bell- communication, phone, & telegraph
What were the goals
of populism?
Increased
circulation of money
Unlimited minting of silver
Progressive Income Tax
Gov’t ownership of comm. &
transportation
What was Pres.
Grant’s Black
Friday?
New York Gold Exchange, Grant’s brotherin law was involved in a scandal that
caused the gold market to crash
Credit Mobilier
Scandal under Grant
administration involving the
Railroad (Union Pacific)
Whiskey Ring-
A group of distillers & public
officials (Grant’s Staff) defrauded
the government of liquor taxes.
Tammany Hall
Political club that ran New York
cities Democratic Party.
Boss Tweed-
Boss of Democratic Party in New
York. He accepted bribes and
kickbacks (Thomas Nast)
What were the
details of the
Garfield
assassination?
He was shot at a D.C. RR Station
by Guiteau because Garfield had
not given him a job.
Who was
responsible for civil
service reform and
what did it do?
Chester Arthur
It made sure that goverment jobs
would go to qualified people. It ended
spoils system.
What were the
Granger Laws?
Regulated RR prices & practices
What was the
Interstate
Commerce Act?
Regulated RR prices could charge
for freight traveling between
states. Illegal to give special rates
to certain customers
Americans?
(electricity, plumbing,
communication, and
transportation)
Made life more convenient and
made it possible to talk to long
distance and travel longer
distances
Define Imperialism
Stronger nations attempt to build
an empire by dominating weaker
ones.
Identify the causes
of American
Imperialism



Promote economic growth
protest American security
Preserve American spirit
Identify the
consequences of
Imperialism




New Markets
Stronger Military
Unpopular abroad
Higher Taxes
Spanish-American
War

Between U.S. and Spain over the freedom of
Cuba also in Philippines
Extractive
Economies-

Economies that extract resources from other
regions
Panama Canal-






Built to connect Pacific and Atlantic
Goethals (engineer)
Roosevelt President
Yellow Fever
thread of schedule
Below budget
Yellow Journalism-

Sensational new coverage emphasizing crime
and scandal
Women’s Suffrage

Movement to give women the right to vote
FDA


Food and Drug Administration
Required labeling of ingredients , strict
sanitary practices, and rating system for
meats
Initiative-

Citizens can put a proposed law directly on
the ballot in the next election with petition
signatures
Referendum-

Allows citizens to approve or reject a law
passed by their legislature
Recall

Permits voters to remove public officials from
office before the next election
Anti-trust
legislation-

Outlawed any combination of companies that
restrained interstate trade commerce
Muckrakers-

Named by TR, journalist who uncovered
wrong doing in politics and business
What were the
causes of WW1?




Imperialism
Militarism
Nationalism
Alliances
List new trends,
inventions, and
ideas of the 1920’s.







Women’s dress
Women Working & Voting
Rural to Urban Movement
Airplane
Entertainment
Jazz
Mass Media
“The Perfect 36”



Book that chronicles how men and women
helped women earn the right to vote.
36 was the number needed to ratify
Tennessee was number 36
Anne Dallas Dudley-


Suffragist
Pivotal in TN women’s suffrage struggle
Harry Burn-

Cast the deciding vote in TN suffrage
movement
What factors caused
the Great
Depression?




Uneven Prosperity
High Personal Debt
Speculation of Stock
Surplus of Goods
Harlem
Renaissance-

African American literary awakening of the
1920’s centered in Harlem (Langston
Hughes)
Lost Generation-

Group of writers in the 1920’s who shared
the belief they were lost in a greedy
materialistic world that lacked moral values
and who often fled to Europe.
Ida Tarbell-

Expose that resulted in the Sherman AntiTrust and break up of Standard Oil
Upton Sinclair

The Jungle exposed the unsanitary practices
of the meat packing industry
Gifford Pinchot-


Helped form Bull Moose Party
forestry
How did radio,
movies, jazz, and
sports change
American life?

Gave Americans new outlet to occupy their
leisure time
What were the
causes of World War
2?



Treaty of Versailles humiliated Germany
Fascism
Imperialism
List the negative
patterns of an
economic cycle.
Dwindling business activity
 unemployment
 excess inventory
 decreased production
 Prepossession
 Increased business failure
 Bankruptcy

Totalitarianism-

Government that exerts total control over the
nation and citizen’s life
Fascism-

Emphasizes importance of the nation, or one
ethnic group, and the supreme authority of a
leader over that of an individual
Communism-



Government owned all land and property
One Political Party
Needs of country took priority over the
individual
Nationalism-

Devotion to one’s country
Anti-Semitism-

Hostility or discrimination against Jews
Hoovervilles-

Makeshift homeless shelters during the Great
Depression
Bonus Army-

Group of WW1 Veterans and their families
who protested in Washington, D.C. (1932)
demanding immediate payment of a pension
bonus
Depression cause
migrations and
worldwide
depression?


People moved to find work
All economies were connected because of
trade
Why did FDR win so
easily in 1932?

Promise of a New Deal (Economic Relief)
Social Security-

(1935) Pension plan for elderly & others who
can not take care of themselves
WPA-


Works Progress Administration
Gave unemployed work in building
construction and arts programs
TVA




Tennessee Valley Authority
Hydroelectric Power
Flood Control
Recreation Activities for Tennessee River
Valley
Indian Reorganization Act



1934
Management of their own assets, protection
of resources
Turn self-government over to tribal basis
FDIC



Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
An independent agency created by Congress
in 1933
insures deposits up to $100,000
CCC


Civilian Conservation Group
Jobs for unmarried men to work on
Conservation projects
Wagner/Fair Labor Standards
Act

Established minimum wage
How did WWII affect the
American economy in the
following areas:






Women
Urbanization
Minority employment
GI Bill
Rationing
childcare






Women went to work in factories
Urbanization, people moved to cities for work in
factories
Minority employment, people went to work in
factories
GI Bill helped returning veterans gain college
education & low cost mortgages
Rationing helped conserve resources for the war
effect
Women were forced to rely on family members &
friends for childcare. Those who were old enough
Why was Fort Campbell
created in Kentucky?


A training facility for WWII soldiers
Home to 101st Airborne Now
Cordell Hull


Sec. of state under FDR from Tennessee
Held position longer than anyone
What contribution did Oak
Ridge make to WWII?

Provided the Plutonium for the A-Bomb
(Manhattan Project)
Nuclear Proliferation

Production of Nuclear Weapons or the
increase of Nuclear Weapons
What impact did espionage
have on the Manhattan Project?


Information about the project was leaked to
the Soviets.
Alger Hiss & the Rosenburgs
Medical Experimentation
during the Manhattan Project

Tested the effects off plutonium and radiation
on people
Nagasaki

Second A-Bomb (Little Boy)
Hiroshima

First A-Bomb dropped on Japan (Fat Man)
What contribution did the following
TN areas make in WWII:






Camp Forest
Memphis Manufacturing Firms
Chattanooga war production plants
Knoxville’s TVA
Alcoa
Kingsport's Eastman Explosive Plant






Camp Forest- Tullahoma, TN, training camp for
WWII
Memphis Manufacturing Firms- War production,
produced bombs
Chattanooga war production plants- produced
army ammunition during WWII (TNT)
Knoxville’s TVA- Powered Oak Ridge
Alcoa- manufactured aluminum for Manhattan
Project
Kingsport’s Eastman Explosive Plant- Holston
What differences did the victorious
Allied Powers have after WWII?


Philosophical differences about governing
(Communism v. Democracy)
What social inequalities existed
in America after WWII?


Jim Crow Laws
Racial Segregation
Space Race-


Race between Russia & U.S. to explore space
Provided more funding in education,
especially in Science and Math
How did Hollywood change
America in the 1950’s ?

Television transformed the American
families’ leisure time and popular culture
How did communication networks
improve in the 50’s and 60’s ?



Television
FM Frequency
Transistor Radio
Medical Advances of 1950’s

Jonas Salk-Polio Vaccine, Penicillin & other
antibiotics, heart surgery
Interstate Highway Systems



Construction in the 1950’s
Ordered by Eisenhower to provide better,
quicker transportation
Secretly to move weapons
Identify area associates with U.S.
containment policies




Korea
Vietnam
Cuba
East & West Germany
McCarthyism-

Described Senator Joseph McCarthy’s AntiCommunist smear tactics
Conformity-


Encouraged in the 1950’s
Blending in and following main stream
society
Counterculture

Opposed the mainstream culture (Hippies)
Generation Gap

Widening difference between the values of
the younger generation and their parents
Highway System-


Provided more roads needed to accommodate
Americans buying more cars
Allowed for growth of suburbs
Consumerism-

Preoccupation with an inclination toward the
buying of consumer goods created boom in
business
Plessy v. Ferguson-

Separate but Equal is legal
Brown v. Board of Education-

Ended separate but equal
Miranda v. Arizona-

People arrested have to be informed of their
rights
Gideon v. Wainwright-

Provided legal representation by the state for
those who can not afford it
Little Rock Central High School-


Gov. Orval Faubus denied admission to 9
students after integration was ordered
Eisenhower sent the soldiers to protect the
students
Montgomery Bus Boycott-


Sparked by Rosa Parks
Conceived by the SCLC eventually led to
integration of buses
Freedom Riders Route-


Tested out the integration of buses
Encountered heavy violence
Birmingham Bombings-

Several churches were bombed
Nashville Lunch Counters-

Sit-in protests of the Jim Crow Laws
Ole-Miss-


1961 James Meredith blocked from entering
by Gov. (Ross Barnett)
Kennedy sent in Federal Marshals after 2
bystanders were killed to restore order
Martin Luther King Jr. & his
march on Washington-

“I have a dream” speech to rally support for
Civil Rights Bill
Civil Rights Act of 1964-





Lyndon Johnson
Banned use of different voter registration
cards
Banned discrimination in public places
Withheld federal money from institutions
who discriminate
Equal employment
Civil Rights 1968-

Prohibited discrimination in renting or
buying of houses
Great Society-

Lyndon Johnson’s plan to aid education
(Head Start), Medicare, Medicaid,
Conservation, voting rights
Bay of Pigs-

Failed invasion of Cuba by a group of AntiCastro Forces trained by the CIA and OK’d by
JFK
Brinkmanship-

1956 term used by Secretary of State John
Dulles to describe the policy of risking war in
order to protect national interests
Cuban Missile Crisis-

1962 crisis that arose between U.S.S.R. & U.S.
over a Soviet attempt to place nuclear
weapons in Cuba
Peaceful Coexistence-

Theory developed during the Cold War that
Communist states could peacefully coexist
with capitalist states
Strom Thurmond-

South Carolina Senator who ran for president
against Truman on the Dixiecraft ticket and a
segregationist platform
Bull O’Conner-


Birmingham, AL police Chief arrested more
than 900 protesters including MLK
Used fire hoses and dogs
George Wallace-

Segregationist Gov. of Alabama who ran for
President in 1968 was shot during the
campaign and paralyzed
Diane Nash-


One of the founders of the SNCC
Key force in the Civil Rights movement
Betty Freidan-


Wrote Feminine Mystique
Leader for Women’s Liberation Movement
Martin Luther King Jr.-

Leader of Civil Rights movement until his
assassination
Malcolm X-



Nation of Islam (Malcolm Little)
Civil Rights more militant than MLK
Assassinated in 1965
Albert Gore Sr.




Civil Rights
TN Senator voted against Civil Rights
Reserved position and voted for
Opposed Vietnam War
Identify changes in the music industry
brought about TN’s influence





Grand Ole Opry
WSM
Nashville Music Publishing
Memphis Sun Studio
Elvis Presley





Grand Ole Opry- Saturday night radio program
(1925-present)
Wsm- Country music station (1923-present). It
popularized country music
Nashville Music Publishing- started shift from
New York to Nashville which led to country &
western records
Memphis Sun Studio- 1950’s recording studio. 1st
single “Rocket 88”. 1st recorded Elvis Presley.
Elvis Presley- the King. Rock & Roll/ Blues No. 1
seller
Sam Walton-

Wal-Mart founder
Michael Dell-


Computers
1990 self start up
Donald Trump-

Real estate giant in NY
Bill Gates-

Microsoft
Steve Jobs-

Apple
Jeff Bezos-

Amazon.com founder
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