Balkash basin of Kazakhstan - Asian G-WADI

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Republic of Kazakhstan
“PARASAT” NATIONAL SCIENCE AND
TECHNOLOGY HOLDING CO. JSC
INSTITUTE OF GEOGRAPHY
Almaty 2010
Balkash basin
Republic of Kazakhstan
Republic of Kazakhstan is the least water delivery in the States of Central
Asia. The peculiarity of the surface waters of the Republic is nearly half of
the river that enters to the country from the territory of neighboring states. At
the present level of knowledge of surface water runoff of all rivers in
Kazakhstan is estimated at 100,5 км3 per year. Of which 56.5 km3 formed
on the territory of the republic and 44.0 km3, in neighboring countries. At the
same from China received an average of 19,9, Uzbekistan13,7, Russia 7,4
Kyrgyzstan 3,0 км3 In the long term is expected to reduce cross-border flow
of resources into the country in connection with business activities in
China,Russia, Uzbekistan,Kyrgyzstan. An additional threat to sustainable
water supply of the republic creates a likely decrease in the local runoff, due
to global and regional climate change
The turquoise waters of Lake Balkhash can be seen in this northeast-looking,
high-oblique photograph. The lake covering 6560 square miles (17 000
square kilometers), is nearly 350 miles (565 kilometers) long, but at this time
is only 45 miles (72 kilometers) at its maximum width. The average depth of
Lake Balkhash is 20 feet (6 meters), but the lake reaches a maximum depth
of 85 feet (26 meters) in its western half. Lake Balkhash extends from the
Betpak Steppe in the west to the Kazakh Hills in the northeast. Visible in the
photograph to the north of the lake is a vast undulating plain, and southsoutheast of the lake are the Ili River and its delta. The Ili River separates two
deserts. The larger, sandy Sary-Ishikotrau Desert lies northeast of the Ili River.
A much smaller river, the Karatal, traverses this desert and empties into the
eastern portion of Lake Balkhash. The Taukum Desert (brownish color) can
be seen southwest of the Ili River. A large sandbar or spit (center of the
photograph) separates the eastern, shallower, more saline part of Lake
Balkhash from the deeper, fresher water of the western portion of the lake.
The Ili River is fed by melting snow and glaciers of the Tien Shan ranges in
China south of the lake (not visible in the photograph). Lake Balkhash has no
river outlet and, even with the influx of fresh water from the Ili River, is
shrinking because of evaporation; however, its rate of shrinkage is much less
than that of the Aral Sea, which juts into Kazakhstan much farther to the west.
Republic of Kazakhstan
Aral Sea
•
Runoff from fields in the middle
and lower reaches of the Syr
darya and Amudarya rivers
caused deposits of various
pesticides and other agricultural
chemicals that appear in some
places by 54 km ² of former
seabed covered with salt. Dust
storms are spreading salt, dust
and chemicals at a distance of
500 km. They are carried by air
and destroy or retard the
development of natural
vegetation and agricultural crops.
The local population suffers from
high incidence of respiratory
diseases, anemia, cancer of the
larynx and esophagus, as well as
digestive disorders. Is becoming
more diseases of the liver and
kidney failure, eye disease.
Aral Sea
The dam also provided recharge the northern part of the Aral Sea, and as
a result of the water began to return. According to Kazakh officials, the
sea is already recovered to 40%. Fishermen took up fishing again. this
area became precipitation again.
Lake Balkash
633 × 552 pixels, file size:
68 KB, MIME-type: image / jpeg)
View of Lake Balkash from
space
Snapshot NASA, August 2002
• Numerals indicate the
largest peninsula of
the island and bays:
Saryesik Peninsula,
separating the lake
into two parts, and the
Strait of Uzynaral
Peninsula Baygabyl
Peninsula Balai
Peninsula Shaukar
Peninsula Kentubek
Islands Basaran and
Ortaaral
Island Tasaral
Bay Shempek
Bay Saryshagan
Water problems of Balkash
Basin
Threats and Challenges
Climatic dependence melting
The rising costs of river
of mountain glaciers,reduction
runoff in China to 4.9 km 3 / year
in resources and change regime
reducing transboundary hectare
of river flow to 12,0-10,6 km 3 / year
Ile to 11.4 km 3 / year
Water hazard
Reduction of potential resources poverhnostnyhVod Republic
up to 16-19 km 3 / godpri natural resources 29 km 3 / year
Drying and salinization of the lake
Balkash and desertification delta
Ile at the reduction influx
of up to 10-12 km 3 / year
The emergence of a new hotbed
Environmental instability
in Pribalkashe
Increased frequency and
intensity of catastrophic
hydrological events,
mudflows. avalanches
Material damage and
casualties in impact
Areas natural phenomena
Reduced runoff
for agricultural
to 4,5-2,0 km 3 / year
Disruption of the program
Prodolstvennogo self-reliance
of the region in the reduction
of irrigated land
Streamflow resources of Balkash Basin
In semi-natural resources during the runoff
basin amounted to 29.36 km 3 / year, of
which the PRC was formed 16,05 km 3 /
year, in Kazakhstan, 13,31
km 3 / year.
Cost of runoff in China amounted to 4.6
km 3 / year, including domestic water
consumption and natural losses, in
Kazakhstan, 9.65 km 3 / year, the lake
received Balkash 15,11 km 3 / year. 10
per cent reduction of climatic resources of
river runoff to 26.40 km 3 / year and
increasing the cost of runoff in China to
7.4 km 3 / year, the disposable resources
of RK runoff decreased to 19 km 3 / year,
including for the lake BalkashN km3/year.
With a 20-percent reduction of climatic
runoff in Kazakhstan is practically
excluded the possibility of economic use
of surface water.
Water management activities of
China Basin Ile
Experts estimate the cost of river
runoff in the Chinese part of the
basin would amount to 7.4 cu.km
per year. In 2003 the area of the
irrigated earths of Ilijsky district
SUAR of the Peoples Republic of
China has reached 568,4 thousand
there are 13 water basins from
(HPS) HYDROELECTRIC
POWER STATION at damming
type and more than 40 HPS of
derivational type; the Population
has made 3,7 million persons.
•
Problems of preservation of
Lake Balkash
•
On the basis of
mathematical modeling to
determine the probable
parameters of the lake
Balkash ahead: Save
holistic lake level
elevations 341.0 m, 340.5,
340.0 provided by river
flow in the volume,
respectively 14, 13 and 12
km 3 / year, including
River Ile 10,8, 10,0, 9,2
km 3 / year Save West
Balkasha at around the
level of 340,0 the inflow of
the River Ili in the amount
of 9.2 km 3 / year by the
partial drainage of the
eastern part of
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