Neo-Freudian’s and NonFreudians.
Are you as Jung as you feel?
G. Stanley Hall
Alfred Adler
Carl Jung
Erik Erikson
Karen Horney
Carl Gustav Jung
• (1875-1961)
• Was a student and
follower of Freud.
• Disagreed with Freud
on some key elements
of personality theory
• In 1912 he and Freud
had a sever falling out
never to reconcile.
From Jung’s Theory
You will find a strong connection between
Jung and two relatively modern
psychological theories.
1. Transactional Analysis - Berne
2. Humanistic Psychology - Rogers, Maslow,
Rollo May
• Jung did not subscribe to the idea that
sexuality was a major force in personality.
He did not see unresolved sexual issues as
barriers to development.
• He viewed the structure of personality as
somewhat different than Freud.
Jung vs.. Freud
1. Id - our base desires
1. Ego - provides
including sex and
conscious direction
2. Persona - the
2. Ego - the mediator
character or role we
between the Superego
and the Id as well as the
keeper of the reality
3. Self - the totality of
the person (conscious
3. Superego - your moral
and unconscious)
base and societies
Jung’s Unconscious
• Personal unconscious - this is similar to
Freud’s concept of the unconscious.
• Collective unconscious - biologically based
reflecting universal themes and ideas. (not
individual expression)
– Archetypes - patterns within the collective
unconscious serving to organize our
The three most significant archetypes
1. Anima - the complimentary qualities of the
persona in a man. (example: intellectual/
2. Animus - the complimentary qualities of the
persona in a women. Ex: nurturing/heroic
3. Shadow - the dark side where more primitive
aspects reside.
Source of Jung’s Position
• He had a rocky relationship with his father
• The conflict of spirituality vs. intellectual
acceptance of doctrine.
• Jung believed by exploring symbols we can
understand the dynamics of the mind.
Jung’s Developmental Position
• Jung believed the developmental process
was one of individuation.
• Individuation is a lifelong process of
increasing awareness with the ultimate goal
of joining the conscious and the
unconscious in the self.
• He did not believe it could actually occur.
• Think of Maslow’s self-actualization
With Jung think Opposites
Conscious versus Unconscious
Ego versus Shadow
Introversion versus Extroversion.
Karen Horney
• Remained in the
Psychoanalytic fold but
took great exception to the
idea that women have
“penis envy”.
• She argued that it was
insulting philosophy and
bad science to claim that
half the human race is
dissatisfied with its
Karen Horney
She openly chastised her male colleagues for their
one sided point of view.
1. She believed there was evidence of female
superiority “indisputable and by no means
negligible physiological superiority”
2. If anyone has envy it is men, it is womb envy.
3. She believed that “castration fear” was very real
for males but not from the father.
4. She believed that the driving force in personality
is not aggression and sexual instincts but “basic
Erik Erikson
• (1902-1994)
• Developed a fuller
theory of personal
development going
beyond the age of 6.
• He called his theory
psychosocial as
opposed to
Psychosocial Theory
Trust versus Mistrust
Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt
Initiative versus Guilt
Competence versus Inferiority
Identity versus Role Confusion
Intimacy versus Isolation
Generativity versus Stagnation
Ego Integrity versus Despair
Alfred Adler
• Born in 1870 in
Vienna, Austria
• Studies under Freud
and was part of the
inner circle from
• Was the president of
the Viennese
Society in 1910.
Alfred Adler
• From the beginning Adler had difficulty
accepting Freud’s view on the nature of
drives and the Oedipal conflict.
• After one year of his presidency in the
Viennese Psychoanalytic Society he
resigned and formed the Association for
Individual Psychology.
Influenced by Darwinian theory shaped
Adler’s view of the individual.
Inferiority Complex
Superiority Complex
Style of life - now know as lifestyle.
John Bowlby
• Born in 1907
• Studied at Cambridge
• Began to study with
the British
• Focused on Mother
Child Separation.
John Bowlby
Object-Relations Theory
Studied an infants attachment to mother.
Deprived of normal contact with parents or
other adults led to problems with
Others involved were Melanie Klein, Ronald
Fairbairn, D. W. Winnicott
Object-Relations Theory
In contrast to Freud’s emphasis on the Oedipal
period object-relations theorists hold that the first
two years are the most critical for development of
the inner core personality.
The term object in object-relations theory is
because the child not only attaches to mother but
also the evolving perception of her.
Object Relations Theory
Unlike Freud where displacement of
psychic energy is the key to disorder
Bowlby et al. believe sources of attachment
are critical to development.
The key issues in life are balancing
independence versus attachment. Losses can
include a spat with a friend or family
member to divorce or death.
“The unsatisfying experiences that occur in
relation to mother then find their
expressions in particular reflection of her in
the infant’s inner world. Mother becomes a
disappointing person who has to be split in
two: the know and the longed-for giving
mother and the known and deeply
disappointing mother” (Eichenbaum &
Orbach, 1983)
Male / Female Development
• In the Freudian school the female is seen as the
developmental problem. The unresolved Oedipal
conflict limits there moral development.
• In the Object-Relations school it is the male the is
the developmental problem. The attachment to the
mother and the struggle with opposites causes
males to have faulty moral development.