March 20, 1828 - 23 May 1906 The oldest of five children Born to Marichen Altenburg and Knud Ibsen Wealthy family Bankrupt Family life influences work At fifteen, Ibsen forced to leave school Child at 18 Norway to Italy to Germany Grimstad at age 15 Central theme “unremitting portrayals of suffering women” Catilina Brand Ole Schulerud By Josh Walsh 1850 - Catiline (Catilina) 1850 - The Burial Mound also known as The Warrior's Barrow (Kjæmpehøjen) 1851 - Norma (Norma) 1852 - St. John's Eve (Sancthansnatten) 1854 - Lady Inger of Oestraat (Fru Inger til Østeraad) 1855 - The Feast at Solhaug (Gildet paa Solhoug) 1856 - Olaf Liljekrans (Olaf Liljekrans) 1857 - The Vikings at Helgeland (Hærmændene paa Helgeland) 1862 - Digte - only released collection of poetry 1862 - Love's Comedy (Kjærlighedens Komedie) 1863 - The Pretenders (Kongs-Emnerne) 1866 - Brand (Brand) 1867 - Peer Gynt (Peer Gynt) 1869 - The League of Youth (De unges Forbund) 1873 - Emperor and Galilean (Kejser og Galilæer) 1877 - Pillars of Society (Samfundets Støtter) 1879 - A Doll's House (Et Dukkehjem) 1881 - Ghosts (Gengangere) 1882 - An Enemy of the People (En Folkefiende) 1884 - The Wild Duck (Vildanden) 1886 - Rosmersholm (Rosmersholm) 1888 - The Lady from the Sea (Fruen fra Havet) 1890 - Hedda Gabler (Hedda Gabler) 1892 - The Master Builder (Bygmester Solness) 1896 - John Gabriel Borkman (John Gabriel Borkm First Play University Marrying and troubles Other Talents Darkness Popularity Inspiration and Reason Father of Realism By Josh Walsh Psychological conflicts Encouragment Why are plays Art? Father of Realism Change Inspiration Basic Fun Fact Asteroid Two honorific accomplishment International Ibsen Award Norwegian Ibsen Award Ibsen Centennial Commemoration Award Final Years • Returned to Norway in 1891 • Became less reclusive in response to • • renown Late work was psychologically reflective in quality Suffered multiple strokes in 1900 o Left unable to write • Scarcely present from time of strokes to • death on May 23, 1906 Last words: "To the contrary!" GEOGRAPHY OF NORWAY NORWAY Mountainous Large coastline Temperate along the coast Fertile land for agriculture Region Eastern Valleys Western Fjords Trondelag (Central Norway) Northern Norway The South Coast Features Valleys, lakes, pine forests. Fjords, islands, deep valleys Lowland valleys, large lakes/rivers, Varied area. Extremely rugged, fjords Small fjords, small islands, rivers. REVOLUTIONS OF 1848 By: Joel Johnston WHAT WERE THE REVOLUTIONS OF 1848? A series of political upheavals that occurred in Europe in 1848 Caused the temporary collapse of traditional authority Wave began in France Affected over 50 countries WHAT SPARKED THESE REVOLUTIONS? Dissatisfaction with political leadership Demand for a more democratic political system Needs of the working class Rise of nationalist movements Regrouping of reactionary forces ORIGINS Originated in France College students were first to start the revolution Peasants and workers soon joined them Variety of demands OUTCOMES Largely considered a failure due to its lack of structural changes Tens of thousands of people killed Only significant lasting reform was the abolition of serfdom in Austria and Hungary, the end of absolute monarchy in Denmark and the end of the Capetian dynasty in France. Reactionary forces won out and the revolutions collapse ROMANTICISM 1770, 1800-1848 Focus on arts, esp. emotions of the artist and aimed to invoke emotion High emphasis on originality, sinful if artist is not original Often associated with nature, artists preferred nature to world of man Very idealistic, ‘pure’ view of nature Little or no satire, not worth serious attention REALISM 1848 Focuses on a third person objective reality Truth by perception undistorted by personal bias of emotions Accurate and truthful to how ‘reality’ really is Against romanticism Literature and theater aims to create an accurate picture of everyday life, and the problems and drama associated with it. WOMEN’S RIGHTS IN EUROPE- 1828-1906 Katherine Received less: were not allowed to attend universities Could only work low paying jobs Had to begin working at around 8 to 12 years Had little choices but to get married She belonged to her husband She could not divorce her husband but he could divorce her until 1857 when a law was instated that allowed divorce in situations of physical mistreatment Women’s suffrage in Norway happened in stages 1833 Oberlin College becomes first coeducational university in the USA 1837 First Anti-Slavery Society (women) meets in New York 1839 Married Women’s Property Act, women can own property in name only. (Mississippi) 1844 Lowell Female Labour Reform Association (LFLRA) demand 10 hour work days, one of first women’s labour unions. 1848 First Women’s Right convention held in Seneca Falls, New York. 1849 First Woman to have a medical degree in the USA (First female medical doctor) 1861-5 Women support war movement, but disrupt women’s rights movement. 1872 Mothers without husbands can maintain a homestead (Canada) 1870 The American Women’s Suffrage Association (AWSA) publishes Women’s Journal 1896 Lawyers can be either male or female, even though the first female lawyer was hired in 1869 1912 Theodore Roosevelt's Progressive Party adopts a woman's suffrage plank. 1917 Women won a petition to allow for women to also cast a vote. Important Figures Feminism ● ● ● ● Feminism is defined as “the doctrine advocating social, political, and all other rights of women equal to those of men.” In the 1800s, and even into the1900s, women were not treated equally to men. Although one might think that only women support feminism, men also supported this, though to a lesser extent. Before the 1840s, even women graduating was unheard of. The first woman recorded graduating from college was in 1840. Humanism Defined as “a body of philosophies and ethical perspectives that emphasize the value of human beings, individually and collectively, and generally place more importance on rational thought than on strict faith or adherence to principle.” The Humanism movement is attributed with moving scientists as well, as many began to call themselves Humanists in the 19th century. It also likely had a part in developing more atheist movements, as it had a part in the questioning of faiths. Ibsen's View ● ● ● "I am not even quite sure what women's rights really are. To me it has been a question of human rights" Ibsen likely used Nora as an “everyman,” not just as a female example. Since women were oppressed at the time and not given equal rights, they could be seen reasonably as a good example of the humanist view. Popularity of Feminism was fueled greatly by the growth in literacy, which allowed the middle class to have more opportunities for careers and thus for their lives. Feminism was also backed up by the enlightenment, which itself was driven by the growth of science which may have pushed, and been pushed by, the Humanist movement. However, feminism was not only fueled by the Enlightenment. Many Christians believed in equality as well. These feminists insisted that women’s rights were God-given and should not be curtailed by human custom or law.