PPT

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Modelling Vocational
Excellence
Petri Nokelainen
School of Education
University of Tampere
Finland
Contents
•
•
•
•
Introduction
Theoretical framework
Method
Results
– MoVE (First phase)
– AVE (Second phase)
– AVE (Third phase)
• Current research
– PaVE (Fourth phase)
Introduction
• International vocational competitions in different
skill areas (e.g., plumbing, hair dressing) are gaining
increasing interest around the world.
• What started in 1947 as a small regional competition
in Spain has now become the WorldSkills
Competition (WSC), a world-renowned event that
draws competitors and visitors from all over the
world.
Introduction
• The competition rules document define the
resolutions and rules for the organisation and
execution of the WorldSkills Competition
incorporating all skill competitions.
– Each country may enter 1 competitor or team per skill.
– Competitors must not be older than 22 years in the year of
the competition.
Introduction
• Finnish WSC teams are studied since 2006
in three projects:
• MoVE = Modelling Vocational Excellence
• AVE = Actualizing Vocational Excellence
• PaVE = Pathways to Vocational Excellence
Introduction
• Projects are funded by the Finnish Ministry
of Education and Culture and supported
by the University of Tampere and
SkillsFinland.
Introduction
• Major goal in these mixed-method studies
was to investigate the role of WorldSkills
competitors’ natural abilities, intrinsic
characteristics, and extrinsic conditions to
their talent development.
Contents
•
•
•
•
Introduction
Theoretical framework
Method
Results
– MoVE (First phase)
– AVE (Second phase)
– AVE (Third phase)
• Current research
– PaVE (Fourth phase)
Theoretical Framework
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Bloom: Talent development taxonomy (1985).
Ericsson: Development of expertise (1993, 2006).
Gagné: Differentiated Model of Giftedness and Talent (2004).
Gardner: Multiple Intelligences (1983, 1993, 1999).
Greenspan, Solomon & Gardner: Cognitive and social skills on
talent development (2004).
Pintrich: Intrinsic and extrinsic goal orientations, control and
efficacy beliefs (2000).
Midgley et al.: Patterns of adaptive learning (2000).
Zimmerman: Sociocognitive approach to self-regulation (1998,
2000).
Weiner: Attributions for success and failure (1986).
Differentiated Model for Giftedness and
Talent (DMGT) (Gagné, 2004)
Causal order of
components in DMGT
(Nokelainen, in press;
Nokelainen & Ruohotie, 2009;
Tirri & Nokelainen, 2011)
Multiple Intelligences Theory (Gardner, 1983)
(1) Linguistic intelligence
(2) Logical-mathematical intelligence
(3) Musical intelligence
(4) Spatial intelligence
(5) Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence
(6) Interpersonal intelligence
(7) Intrapersonal intelligence
(8) Spiritual intelligence
(9) Environmental intelligence
Adaptation of Zimmerman’s Self-regulation Model
(Zimmerman, 2000; Nokelainen, 2008)
Contents
•
•
•
•
Introduction
Theoretical framework
Method
Results
– MoVE (First phase)
– AVE (Second phase)
– AVE (Third phase)
• Current research
– PaVE (Fourth phase)
Method
• Interview (n = 30) and survey (n = 110)
data was collected from 2005 Helsinki,
2007 Shizuoka and 2009 Calgary
competitors, their trainers, working life
representatives and parents.
Method
Method
Finnish WSC
team selection
WorldSkills
competition
Finnish WSC
team training
1. PHASE
INTERVIEWS
SURVEY
2. PHASE
DATA
WSC
SUCCESS
Working
life
3. PHASEINTERVIEWS
...
. .. .. .
A
N
A
L
Y
S
E
S
Contents
•
•
•
•
Introduction
Theoretical framework
Method
Results
– MoVE (First phase)
– AVE (Second phase)
– AVE (Third phase)
• Current research
– PaVE (Fourth phase)
First phase research questions
(interviews)
1. What characteristics are specific to WSC
competitors?
2. How do the characteristics of WSC competitors
differ during the training period, competitions, and
working life?
3. What characteristics are specific to WSC
competitors' initial interest in the field,
perseverance in acquiring a vocational skill, and
mastery of that skill?
4. What characteristics are specific to the employers
of WSC competitors?
Design
Finnish WSC
team selection
WorldSkills
competition
Finnish WSC
team training
1. PHASE
INTERVIEWS
SURVEY
2. PHASE
DATA
WSC
SUCCESS
Working
life
3. PHASE INTERVIEWS
...
. .. .. .
A
N
A
L
Y
S
E
S
Method
• Four Finnish WSC 2005 and four WSC 2007
competitors (n = 8) were interviewed.
– Six males (Mage=21 years) and two females
(Mage=20 years).
• Also their trainers, working life
representatives and parents (n = 22) were
interviewed.
Method
• WSC competitors in this study represent
four skill categories, which are linked to the
Multiple Intelligence theory (Gardner,
1983):
– IT/Software Applications (logicalmathematical).
– Web Design (spatial, logical-mathematical).
– Plumbing (bodily-kinesthetic, spatial).
– Beauty Therapy (interpersonal, bodilykinesthetic, spatial).
Interview
measurement
model
NON-DOMAIN SPECIFIC
EXTRINSIC CONDITIONS
Home
Relatives
Friends
Media
RQ 3
VOLITION
Perseverance
Time management
MOTIVATION
Intrinsic
SELF-REFLECTION
Extrinsic
Effort
Ability
WORK LIFE
EXPECTATIONS
RQ 1,2,3
NATURAL
ABILITIES
Challenge
Intellectual
Socioaffective
Society
RQ 1,2,3
Sensori-motorical
Responsibility
VOCATIONAL
TALENT
DEVELOPMENT
RQ 4
Leadership
Life-long learning
Salary
RQ 1,2,3
Intrinsic
Effort
Extrinsic
Ability
SELF-REFLECTION
MOTIVATION
Perseverance
Time management
VOLITION
RQ 3
Artefacts
Workplace
Other persons
Teachers
Mental trainers
Friends
Skill trainers
DOMAIN SPECIFIC
EXTRINSIC CONDITIONS
Results: Interview
1. What characteristics are specific to WSC
competitors?
INTRINSIC
CHARACTERISTICS
VOLITION
Perseverance
Time management
MOTIVATION
Intrinsic
SELF-REFLECTION
Extrinsic
Stress tolerance
VOCATIONAL
TALENT
CHARACTERISTICS
INTELLECTUAL
SENSORIMOTOR
SOCIOAFFECTIVE
NATURAL
ABILITIES
Results: Interview
INTRINSIC
CHARACTERISTICS
VOLITION
Perseverance
Time management
MOTIVATION
Intrinsic
SELF-REFLECTION
Extrinsic
Stress tolerance
VOCATIONAL
TALENT
CHARACTERISTICS
INTELLECTUAL
SENSORIMOTOR
SOCIOAFFECTIVE
NATURAL
ABILITIES
Self-reflection (stress tolerance)
Mental training
Volition (perseverance, time management)
Total mastery of work skills
Cognitive skills (development potential)
Shift from uncontrollable to controllable
attributions
Extrinsic goal-orientation (competitiveness,
ambition)
Promotion of advances of competitions
for future career
Intrinsic goal-orientation (interest towards
work)
Meaningful training tasks, interesting
artifacts, home/teacher support
Social skills
Collaborative tasks during training
Results: Interview
2. How do the characteristics of WSC competitors
differ during the training period, competitions,
and working life?
INTRINSIC
CHARACTERISTICS
INTRINSIC
CHARACTERISTICS
INTRINSIC
CHARACTERISTICS
VOLITION
VOLITION
VOLITION
Perseverance
Time management
Time management
SELF-REFLECTION MOTIVATION
MOTIVATION
Intrinsic
Perseverance
Extrinsic
Intrinsic
Stress tolerance
VOCATIONAL
TALENT
DEVELOPMENT
Training/studies
SOCIOAFFECTIVE
NATURAL
ABILITIES
Time management
MOTIVATION
SELF-REFLECTION
Extrinsic
Intrinsic
Stress tolerance
VOCATIONAL
TALENT
DEVELOPMENT
Competitions
SENSORIMOTORINTELLECTUAL
INTELLECTUAL
Perseverance
SELF-REFLECTION
Extrinsic
VOCATIONAL
TALENT
DEVELOPMENT
Working life
SENSORIMOTOR
INTELLECTUAL
SOCIOAFFECTIVE
NATURAL
ABILITIES
Stress tolerance
SENSORIMOTOR
SOCIOAFFECTIVE
NATURAL
ABILITIES
Results: Interview
1. Perseverance and self-reflection alongside with
intellectual and sensorimotorical abilities were
important in all three career stages.
2. The role of social skills was strongest in working life.
3. Results showed only minor differences between
intrinsic and extrinsic goal-orientations.
Results: Interview
3. What characteristics are specific to WSC
competitors' initial interest in the field,
perseverance in acquiring a vocational skill, and
mastery of that skill?
Results: Interview
1. Institutional and trainers’ support are important
throughout the three skill acquisition stages.
2. Intrinsic goal-orientation is more important at the
initial stage than extrinsic goal-orientation, but the
roles change during training process (perseverance).
Results: Interview
3. Importance of future work security and possibilities
increase towards the mastery level.
4. Role of social motivation (importance of friends and
WSC team members) stay quite small and stable
throughout the process.
Results: Interview
4. What characteristics specify WSC
competitors’ employer?
1. Challenging work tasks
2. Freedom and responsibility
3. Logical and fair leadership
4. Acknowledgement of life long learning
5. Competitive salary
Interview
measurement
model
NON-DOMAIN SPECIFIC
EXTRINSIC CONDITIONS
Home
Relatives
Friends
Media
RQ 3
VOLITION
Perseverance
Time management
MOTIVATION
Intrinsic
SELF-REFLECTION
Extrinsic
Effort
Ability
WORK LIFE
EXPECTATIONS
RQ 1,2,3
NATURAL
ABILITIES
Challenge
Intellectual
Socioaffective
Society
RQ 1,2,3
Sensori-motorical
Responsibility
VOCATIONAL
TALENT
DEVELOPMENT
RQ 4
Leadership
Life-long learning
Salary
RQ 1,2,3
Intrinsic
Effort
Extrinsic
Ability
SELF-REFLECTION
MOTIVATION
Perseverance
Time management
VOLITION
RQ 3
Artefacts
Workplace
Other persons
Teachers
Mental trainers
Friends
Skill trainers
DOMAIN SPECIFIC
EXTRINSIC CONDITIONS
Interview
outcome
model
NON-DOMAIN SPECIFIC
EXTRINSIC CONDITIONS
Home
Relatives
Friends
Society
Media
VOLITION
Perseverance
Time management
MOTIVATION
Intrinsic
SELF-REFLECTION
Extrinsic
Effort
Ability
WORK LIFE
EXPECTATIONS
NATURAL
ABILITIES
Challenge
Intellectual
Responsibility
VOCATIONAL
TALENT
DEVELOPMENT
Socioaffective
Sensori-motorical
Leadership
Life-long learning
Salary
Intrinsic
Effort
Extrinsic
Ability
SELF-REFLECTION
MOTIVATION
Perseverance
Time management
VOLITION
Artefacts
Workplace
Other persons
Teachers
Mental trainers
Friends
Skill trainers
DOMAIN SPECIFIC
EXTRINSIC CONDITIONS
Contents
•
•
•
•
Introduction
Theoretical framework
Method
Results
– MoVE (First phase)
– AVE (Second phase)
– AVE (Third phase)
• Current research
– PaVE (Fourth phase)
Second phase research
questions (survey)
5. What are WSC competitors' most essential natural
abilities?
6. What are WSC competitors' most essential selfregulatory abilities?
7. What is the influence of domain-specific and nondomain-specific factors on the talent development
of WSC competitors?
Design
Finnish WSC
team selection
WorldSkills
competition
Finnish WSC
team training
1. PHASE
INTERVIEWS
SURVEY
2. PHASE
WSC
SUCCESS
3. PHASEINTERVIEWS
A vs. C
DATA
Working
life
...
. .. .. .
A
N
A
L
Y
S
E
S
Method
• A combined sample of 2007 (Shizuoka,
Japan), 2009 (Calgary, Canada) and 2011
(London, UK) teams contains 110
competitors.
• The response rate was 75 per cent of the total target
population (N = 147).
• The sample consists of 76 male (69%) and 34 female (31%)
competitors.
• Male respondents’ age average was 20.9 years (SD =
1.676) and female respondents 20.8 years (SD = 1.735).
Method
• The participants of the survey study
represent 23 WSC categories covering most
of the MI theory’s intelligence areas.
• The concepts of expertise and excellence
were operationalized as follows:
– World Skills competitors were considered to be
vocational experts and they were coded into group B
(positions 8 – 11 in international competitions) or
group C (positions 12 – ).
– Only the most successful competitors were coded into
group A (positions 1 – 7), representing vocational
excellence in the study.
Survey measurement model
Results: Survey
• Success in middle school did not predict
vocational skill competition success.
• Success in vocational studies did predict
vocational skill competition success.
Middle school GPA
Vocational studies GPA
+
WSC
success
Results: Survey
5. What are WSC competitors' most essential
natural abilities?
Multiple Intelligences theory’s relation to skill areas:
(1) Linguistic (e.g., Caring, Hair Dressing)
(2) Logical-mathematical (e.g., IT/Programming, Web Design)
(3) Musical
(4) Spatial (e.g., Web Design, Beauty Therapy)
(5) Bodily-kinesthetic (e.g., Plumbing and Heating, Caring)
(6) Interpersonal (e.g., Beauty Therapy, Catering)
(7) Intrapersonal
(8) Spiritual
(9) Environmental
Results: Survey
5. What are WSC competitors' most essential
natural abilities?
1. Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence
- Dominant in most skill areas.
2. Mathematical-logical intelligence
3. Interpersonal intelligence
4. Spatial intelligence
5. Intrapersonal intelligence
Where the ’A’ group differs from the ’C’ group:
1. Linguistic intelligence (‘A’ higher)
2. Interpersonal intelligence (‘A’ higher)
Results: Survey
6. What are WSC competitors' most essential
self-regulatory abilities?
Motivational factors:
(1) Internal goal orientation,
(2) External goal orientation,
(3) Meaningfulness of studies,
(4) Control beliefs,
(5) Efficacy beliefs,
(6) Test anxiety.
Patterns of Adaptive Learning
Scales:
(1) Mastery Goal Orientation,
(2) Performance-Approach Goal
Orientation,
(3) Performance-Avoidance Goal
Orientation.
Attributions for success and failure
Results: Survey
6. What are WSC competitors' most essential
self-regulatory abilities?
1. Meaningfulness of studies (studies will benefit
future work career)
2. Extrinsic goal orientation (need for positive
feedback from others, ambition)
3. Intrinsic goal orientation (mastery of a skill is a
satisfying experience)
4. Efficacy beliefs (success due ability)
5. Control beliefs (success due effort)
Results: Survey
6. What are WSC competitors' most essential
self-regulatory abilities?
Where the ’A’ group differs from the ’C’ group:
1. All motivational factors, except test anxiety,
were higher in the ‘A’ group.
2. ’A’ group preferred effort over ability as an
explanation for their success
3. Test anxiety was higher in the ’C’ group.
4. Predictive modeling showed ”meaningfulness of
studies” to be the most important predictor
for success in skills competitions.
Results: Survey
6. What are WSC competitors' most essential
self-regulatory abilities?
1. Mastery Goal Orientation (development of
competence is important, learning is interesting,
focus is on the task)
2. Performance-Approach Goal Orientation (show
others, focus is on the self)
3. Performance-Avoidance Goal Orientation
(avoidance of embarrassment, focus is on the self)
Where the ’A’ group differs from the ’C’ group:
1. The ’A’ group was more performanceapproach oriented than the ’C’ group.
2. The ‘C‘ group was clearly more performance-avoidance
oriented than the ‘A’ group.
Results: Survey
6. What are WSC competitors' most essential
self-regulatory abilities?
• Volitional aspects of talent development
were investigated through two dimensions,
perseverance and time management.
1. Perseverance
2. Time management
Where the ’A’ group differs from the ’C’ group:
1. The ’A’ group had better time management
skills.
Results: Survey
7. What is the influence of domain and nondomain specific factors to the WSC
competitors’ talent development?
Results: Survey
7. What is the influence of domain and nondomain specific factors to the WSC
competitors’ talent development?
1. Conducive home atmosphere (non-domain
specific factor)
2. Interest towards work field (domain specific
intrinsic motivation)
3. Interest in competing with others in vocational
skills (domain specific extrinsic motivation)
All these factors were positively connected with
international skills competition success.
Measurement model of Vocational Talent
Development
INTRINSIC CHARACTERISTICS
VOLITION
Perseverance
MOTIVATION
Time management
SELF-REFLECTION
Intrinsic
Effort
Ability
Extrinsic
NATURAL ABILITIES
C INTELLECTUAL
R
E
A
T
I
Linguistic
Logicalmathematical
Spatial
Intrapersonal
Spiritual
Musical
MAP
PAP
PAV
VOCATIONAL
TALENT
DEVELOPMENT
V SOCIOAFFECTIVE
I
Interpersonal
T
Y
Environmental
SENSORIMOTOR
Bodily-kinesthetic
Home
Teachers
Friends
Trainers
Artefacts
Work/empl.
Team mates
NON-DOMAIN
DOMAIN
SPECIFIC EXTRINSIC CONDITIONS
Outcome model of Vocational Talent
Development
INTRINSIC CHARACTERISTICS
VOLITION
Perseverance
MOTIVATION
Time management
SELF-REFLECTION
Intrinsic
Effort
Ability
Extrinsic
NATURAL ABILITIES
C INTELLECTUAL
R
E
A
T
I
Linguistic
Logicalmathematical
Spatial
Intrapersonal
Spiritual
Musical
MAP
PAP
PAV
VOCATIONAL
TALENT
DEVELOPMENT
V SOCIOAFFECTIVE
Interpersonal
I
T
Environmental
SENSORIMOTOR
Y SENSORIMOTOR
Bodily-kinesthetic
Home
Teachers
Friends
Trainers
Artefacts
Work/empl.
Team mates
NON-DOMAIN
DOMAIN
SPECIFIC EXTRINSIC CONDITIONS
Outcome model of Vocational Talent
Development (expertise vs. excellence)
Contents
•
•
•
•
Introduction
Theoretical framework
Method
Results
– MoVE (First phase)
– AVE (Second phase)
– AVE (Third phase)
• Current research
– PaVE (Fourth phase)
Third phase research questions
(interview)
8. What characteristics specify WSC competitors in
the working life?
9. What life management skills specify WSC
competitors in the working life?
10. What characteristics specify WSC competitors’
employer?
Design
Finnish WSC
team selection
WorldSkills
competition
Finnish WSC
team training
1. PHASE
INTERVIEWS
SURVEY
2. PHASE
DATA
WSC
SUCCESS
Working
life
3. PHASEINTERVIEWS
...
. .. .. .
A
N
A
L
Y
S
E
S
Method
• 16 interviews were conducted in six Finnish
small to medium size enterprises.
• Three participants were selected from each
workplace:
• (W) Finnish WSC medalist from 2005
Helsinki or 2007 Calgary, who has more than
two year work experience after the
competition.
• (C) Control group member with similar age
and work experience but no skills
competition training (not available in all
work places).
• (E) Employer representative.
Results: Interview
8. What characteristics specify WSC
competitors in the working life?
Results: Interview
1. Self-reflection (stress
tolerance)
2. Volition (perseverance,
time management skills)
3. Cognitive skills
(development potential)
W = WorldSkills competitor
C = Control group member
E = Employer
W
C
E
W
C
E
W
C
E
Results: Interview
9. What life management skills specify
WSC competitors in the working life?
Results: Interview
W = WorldSkills competitor
C = Control group member
E = Employer
1. Do team work
2. Bounce back from failures
W
C
E
W
C
E
W
C
E
W
C
E
W
C
E
3. Manage conflict situations
4. Bounce back from injustices
5. Bounce back from success
Results: Interview
10. What characteristics specify WSC
competitors’ employer?
Results: Interview
W = WorldSkills competitor
C = Control group member
E = Employer
1. Freedom and responsibility
W
C
E
W
C
E
W
C
E
2. Challenging work tasks
3. Logical and fair leadership
Contents
•
•
•
•
Introduction
Theoretical framework
Method
Results
– MoVE (First phase)
– AVE (Second phase)
– AVE (Third phase)
• Current research
– PaVE (Fourth phase)
Pathways to Vocational Excellence
Pathways to Vocational Excellence
Pathways to Vocational Excellence
MoVE International
• 2011 an international research team was
established to investigate London 2011
WSC competitors and experts:
– University of Tampere
– SKOPE, Oxford University
– RMIT University
• Research is funded by the WorldSkills
Foundation.
• Reports are out due early 2012.
Thank you!
For more information, please contact:
• [email protected]
– MoVE –project (2006 – 2008)
http://www.uta.fi/aktkk/projects/move
– AVE –project (2009 – 2011)
http://www.uta.fi/aktkk/projects/ave
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