Module from SIOP Process by which employees are given feedback on job performance Often annual or semi-annual The question: How is a boss supposed to remember what each employee did or didn’t do? Performance appraisal can be viewed as a classic example of how we cognitively process and remember things The boss (or other rater)… 1. …observes relevant behaviors 2. …encodes information about performance 3. …stores encoded information in memory 4. …retrieves information needed for the evaluation 5. …integrates retrieved information with other available info (e.g., documentation) 6. …assigns an evaluation to the person being rated Many raters use heuristics to create “cognitive shortcuts” to help make ratings The problem: Heuristics are based off general impressions or information and lack specificity Halo error! Training (e.g., Frame-of-Reference) Diary/log keeping Make performance appraisal a process, not an “event” Structure the performance appraisal ratings so that specific information has to be recalled ◦ One tool: Behaviorally-anchored rating scales Maintains A Good Work Relationship Discusses work-related issues with supervisor and other work group members using knowledge gained from work experience to improve work unit efficiency or quality, or to solve work-related problems. Typical High Behavior Exercises tact in bringing up problems when group members are affected. Takes initiative to see that suggestions get carried out. Uses all available evidence to convince people that he/she has a better way to do things. 5 4 Typical Average Behavior Develops new work procedures, but doesn’t share them. Takes initiative only if it is beneficial to himself/herself. Sometimes fails to address problem directly, but makes some effort to communicate problems and solutions. 3 2 Typical Low Behavior Disrupts meetings by changing topics or by horseplay. Doesn’t ask questions even if unsure of procedures. Upsets people instead of trying to help. Complains about work but doesn’t do anything to change it. Leaves area in a mess so that accidents are more likely to happen. 1 If you’re receiving a performance evaluation… ◦ Come prepared Keep track of what you do If you have a “Development Plan,” bring it Any specific information you can provide makes the rater’s job easier ◦ Don’t panic! The most common use for performance appraisals is feedback; accurate feedback can only help you get better at your job Balzer, W. K., & Sulsky, L. M. (1992). Halo and performance appraisal research. Journal of Applied Psychology, 77, 975-985. DeNisi, A. S., Cafferty, T. P., & Meglino, B. M. (1984). A cognitive view of the performance appraisal process: A model and research propositions. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 33, 360-396. Uggerslev, K. L., & Sulsky, L. M. (2008). Using frameof-reference training to understand the implications of rater idiosyncrasy for rating accuracy. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93, 711-719.