OBJECTIVES Recognize films as texts to be read. Identify ways in which “the viewer contains the viewed.” Identify types of film discourse (some of which will be studied in more depth later) Identify key aspects of traditional narrative, understanding structure and relationships between character and action. Analyze Mise en scène (visual elements adding thematic richness) Identify key production techniques. Suspension of disbelief Film/Text “Filters” (age, gender, education, life experience, etc.) Purpose of viewing (entertainment, education, analysis, etc.) Discourse (review, criticism, theory?) Review: Is it entertaining? Criticism: How does it reflect culture? Theory: e.g., What Is entertainment? How do our notions of entertainment correspond to our notions of pleasure? (from Latin discursus, meaning "running to and from") Formal, orderly, and usually extended expression of thought on a subject Semiotics: What is being signified by a particular element (e.g., color)? Psychoanalytic: Freud was interested in fantasy and desire, as are films (dreamlike). Marxist: Considers labor, costs, power, |conformity to institutions of power Feminism: Gender issues (e.g., representation of women in film) Ethnic Theory: Ethnicity issues (e.g., representation of people of color in film) Other . . . Two kinds of pleasure Mulvey identifies, based on Freudian theory: A) scopophilia, which is the pleasure of making someone else the object of your gaze and B) identification with the character. The assumption is that the film viewer is male (or takes a male subject position), so both of these pleasures are gendered. The woman is always subjected to a male gaze. The male is assumed to be the active spectator; the woman the passive object of spectatorship. The male relationship with the female image is paradoxical: attraction and fear (of castration), according to Mulvey’s Freudian reading.. Ways to escape the fear of castration are to demystify her (punish her, save her) or fetishize her (see her as the untouchable, glamorous star). Link to Summary of Laura Mulvey’s “Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema” Mulvey was criticized on the one hand for reinforcing heterosexuality and on the other hand for assuming a passive, un-negotiating viewer. Story / Plot Theories Aristotle (Beginning, Middle, End) Character relationship to plot Gustav Frytag (Conflict, Complication, Climax, Resolution) Stephen Meadows (Pause and Effect) Gustav Freytag “Placement in the Scene” Mise en scène Visual elements adding thematic richness to the film: 1) Visible Elements (lighting, location, color, space, costuming, set design, etc.) 2) How Elements Relate to Each Other (e.g., characters facing one another, facing camera, etc. 3) How Elements Are Captured on Film (camera movement, point of view) (lighting, location, color, space, costuming, set design, etc.) Think of a film in which color contributed to the theme. What was the dominant color? Was the color symbolic? Is the symbolism typical or established just for the movie? Sixth Sense (1999) 15 Minutes (2001) Schindler’s List (1993) (e.g., characters facing one another, facing camera, etc. Placement of Characters (facing us, facing each other, back to us, back to each other, space between them, proximity to objects, etc.) Placement of Other Objects (e.g., in relationship to characters and each other) (camera movement, point of view) Camera Around Characters (Sound of Music) Characters Around Camera (Annie Hall) Characters as Objects to Each Other Camera from a Character’s Point of View See www.julietdavis.com/cameraterminology.doc Zoom Pan Tilt Track Dolly in/out Arc Roll Jump cut Deep focus Shallow focus Dissolve Fade in Fade Out Cut Wipe Match on Action Eyeline Match Reaction Shot Parallel Editing (or “Cross-cutting”) Flashbacks Montage Cutting for Chaos USE RULE OF THIRDS.