LING 306
TEFL METHODOLOGY
COOPERATIVE LEARNING
LEARNING STRATEGY TRAINING
MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES
LEARNING STRATEGY TRAINING
 “good language learners are willing and accurate
guessers who have a strong desire to
communicate…They attend to both the meaning and
the form of their message. They also practice and
monitor their own speech as well as others.” (LarsenFreeman, p159)
WHAT IS LEARNING STRATEGY TRAINING?
• LEARNING STRATEGY – used to achieve learning
strategies
• - usually tied to the needs and interests of students
to enhance learning and based on many types of
learning styles
• LEARNING STRATEGY TRAINING – learning will
be facilitated by making students aware of the range
from which they can choose during language
learning and use (to improve learning effectiveness)
EXAMPLES OF LEARNING STRATEGY
 SEMANTIC MAPPING
 COPS STRATEGY
 READING COMPREHENSION
GOALS OF STRATEGY TRAINING
• Self diagnose their strengths and weaknesses in language
•
•
•
•
•
•
learning
Become aware of what helps them to learn the target
language most efficiently
Develop a broad range of problem solving skills
Experiment with familiar and unfamiliar learning
strategies
Make decisions on how to approach a language task
Monitor and self-evaluate their performance
Transfer successful strategies to new learning contexts
FRAMEWORK
FOR
LEARNING
STRATEGY
TRAINING
AIMS AT
RAISING STUDENT
AWARENESS OF THE
PURPOSE AND
RATIONALE OF
STRATEGY USE
GIVES STUDENTS
OPPORTUNITIES TO
PRACTICE THE
STRATEGIES THEY
ARE BEING TAUGHT
HELP THEM USE
THE STRATEGIES IN
NEW LEARNING
CONTEXTS
• SEQUENCE FOR FRAMEWORK
Initial modeling of the strategy
by the teacher with direct
explanation of the strategy’s use
and importance
ii. Guided practice
iii. Consolidation – help students
identify the strategy and decide
when it might be used
iv. Independent practice
v. Application of strategy to new
tasks
i.
COOPERATIVE LEARNING
 “WHAT CHILDREN CAN DO TOGETHER TODAY,
THEY CAN DO ALONE TOMORROW” – LEV
VYGOTSKY, 1962
 “THERE IS POWER TO WORKING IN GROUPS” –
DAVID AND ROGER JOHNSON
 “IT’S MORE THAN 3 PEOPLE AND FORM A
GROUP”
COOPERATIVE LEARNING – WHAT IS IT?
• Is an approach to organizing classroom activities into
academic and social learning experiences
• An instructional method that allows students to work
in small groups within the classroom, often with a
division of assignment of several specific tasks or
roles. Allows students to practice working in a group
and taking leadership roles
• Structured form of small group learning. Based on 2
key assumptions – positive independence and
individual accountability
POSITIVE INTERDEPENDENCE &
INDIVIDUAL ACCOUNTABILITY
Individual members of a team must feel
that they need each other in order to
complete the group’s task
• POSITIVE INTERDEPENDDENCE
Every member of the team needs to
demonstrate individual mastery of the
material being studied
• INDIVIDUAL ACCOUNTABILITY
PROMOTIVE INTERACTION &
INTERPERSONAL SKILLS
Individual members of the team encourage
and facilitate each other’s efforts to complete
the task in order to complete the group’s goal
• PROMOTIVE INTERACTION
Individual members must demonstrate
effective communication, leadership, trust,
and conflict management skills
• INTERPERSONAL SKILLS
GROUP PROCESSING
 individual members of the team follow correct
procedures to analyze how well their team is
functioning and how well their team is using
interpersonal skills
COOPERATIVE LEARNING - OBJECTIVES
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
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Students learn from each other in groups
Students think in “positive interdependence”
Groups are mixed in gender and race
Individuals help each other
Teacher teach students social skills
Students communicate in L2 to achieve language
acquisition
Students are tested individually
Students responsibility are distributed
Teacher teach L2 & cooperation
Cooperative learning teaches language for academic and
social purposes
HOW TO IMPLEMENT COOPERATIVE
LEARNING?
 Big project – report writing based on findings,
observations etc.
 Jigsaw – divide the group to focus in special areas of
the material to be learned
 Peer review – learn how to provide and receive
constructive feedback
COOPERATIVE LEARNING
 Not random – involves intentional planning that
focuses on goals and objectives
 Based on students’ multiple intelligences,
learning styles, interests, readiness vs ability
 Fosters positive social and interpersonal skills
demonstrated by members of the team
 Assigns roles to members of the group
 Individuals as well as group members
responsible for learning
 Encourages individual members to reflect upon
their roles in the group and work
MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES
PHILOSOPHY
 The ability to enhance and amplify our intelligence
 Can be taught to others
 A multiple reality that occurs in different parts of the
brain/mind system
 Intelligence – the ability to solve problems, create
products that are valued in more than 1 cultural
setting
MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES
PHILOSOPHY
 Howard Gardner found we have 7 intelligences – we
have all of them but not fully developed
 “IT IS NOT HOW SMART YOU ARE, BUT HOW
YOU ARE SMART!”
MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES
VISUAL/SPATIAL
BODY /
KINESTHETIC
VERBAL / LINGUISTIC
7 INTELLIGENCES
MUSICAL /
RHYTHMIC
LOGICAL/MATHEMATICAL
INTRAPERSONAL
INTERPERSONAL
MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES
APPROACH
 Better regard for intellectuality
 Provide opportunities for authentic learning based
on needs, interests and talents of students
 Parents and community involvement may increase
when students demonstrate work before panels
and audiences
 Students will be able to demonstrate their abilities
and strengths – can help increase self esteem
BENEFITS OF IMPLEMENTING MULTIPLE
INTELLIGENCES
 When you teach for understanding students will
accumulate positive educational experiences and the
capability for creating solutions to problems in life
HOW CAN MI HELP STUDENTS LEARN
BETTER?
 Learning is both a social and psychological process.
 When ss understand how they are intelligent – to
manage own learning , to value individual strengths