Civics Class Notes- Chapter 2

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ROOTS OF AMERICAN DEMOCRACY

Vocabulary Needed

• Monarch

• Legislature

• Parliament

• Precedent

• Constitution

• Bicameral

• Confederation

• Magna Carta

• Mercantilism

• Common Law

• Colony

• Charter

• Compact

• Amend

• Ratify

• Preamble

• Declaration of

Independence

How did the Founders plan our nation?

Chapter Two: Roots of

American Democracy.

Pages 26

– 49 Civics Today

Many of our rights can be traced back to the political and legal traditions of

England.

When did the King John lose his power?

Until 1215 the monarch held absolute power.

The King granted nobles vast amounts of land for their loyalty, military support and tax payments.

Why did the noblemen revolt?

King John began to abuse the rights of the noblemen. Taxes were rising, arrests were common, and land was taken. The nobles rebelled and forced King John to sign the Magna

Carta (Latin for

“Great Charter”).

Magna Carta

What were the ideas in the

Magna Carta?

The Magna Carta was a

contract

that

limited

the

power

of the king. It protected nobles

’ rights, gave

equal treatment

under the law and

trial by peers.

NO ONE WAS ABOVE

THE LAW!

– not even the King or Queen

From

w

here did the ideas come?

Henry III followed King John and met regularly with nobles and clergy. They gave advise to him. The group grew in numbers and power. The common people were eventually represented.

This group became a legislative body known as

Parliament.

How did

Parliament form?

Parliament removed King

James II in 1688 and placed

William and Mary on the throne.

Mary was King

James

’ daughter.

Why was this called the

Glorious Revolution?

From that time on no ruler would have more power than the legislature. The English

Bill of Rights in 1689 was passed by Parliament was agreed to by the new monarchs.

What did it state?

Bellringer

Which system of law is based on precedent and customs?

Which system is laws is

America

’s personal injury, contract and property law based upon?

English Bill of Rights made clear that the Monarch

could not

:

Create Special

Courts

Suspend

Parliament

’ s

Laws

Raise an Army without Parliament

’s consent

Impose Taxes

What rights were preserved?

Free Elections in Parliament

Free Speech in

Parliament

Meetings

Cruel and Unusual

Punishment Banned

Every Citizen

Fair Trial

Every Citizen

Trial By Jury

The Bill of Rights declared:

COMMON LAW

At one point England did not have written laws. They had rules and these had the force of law. Courts developed and their decisions became the basis of law.

Judges would look for a precedent to decide their rulings.

What are they looking for?

• Precedents

• Customs

What 2 areas do we use to settle conflict based on common law?

Establishing Colonies in

America

• In the 1600-1700’s England was busy establishing colonies in America

– Ruled by a parent country somewhere else

• First colonist remained loyal to the English political traditions

– Expected a voice in their government and basic rights.

1607

1 st permanent English Settlement?

Little to None

What was the 1 st representative assembly in the

English colony called?

Virginia House of Burgesses

How much power?

Mayflower Compact

Needed Gov

’ t.

Why was this done before they left the ship?

What was the plan called?

Who signed the contract?

41 White Men

Drew up a written plan of government.

1620 A new group of colonists arrived.

Pilgrims…They…?

Signing the Compact on

Board the Mayflower by

Tompkins H. Matteson

What type of democracy did the

Mayflower Compact establish?

Direct Democracy

Green indicates?

Bellringer

• Why did the American colonists grow used to making their own decisions?

• How did this affect them later on?

Study the two pictures. In what group would you have belonged? Why?

CAUSE AND EFFECT

BRITISH ACTIONS

COLONIST RESPONSES

• Policy of Mercantilism forced Colonist to buy

• 1765 Stamp Act

(newspapers./leg. doc.)

• 1766 Declaratory Act

• 1767 Townshend Acts

• 1773 Tea Act (Unfair trade for E. Br. Ind.Co)

• Coercive Acts (Intolerable

Acts)

• Colonial business suffered

No Taxation Without

Representation (boycott

Eng. Goods)

• Boycott Eng. Goods since

Stamp Act was repealed.

• Blocked/ Bost. Tea Party

• First Continental Cong.

King George III responded with force.

What 2 battles changed the minds of colonists?

January 1776

May 1775 colonist leaders meet again. What was the meeting called? Purpose?

To write a document that would announce independence!

Who was the major contributor to this document? What did it state?

These are the beliefs concerning the rights of individuals. Rough Draft?

That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men,

deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed

,

— That

whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it

, and to institute new Government, …

The Declaration of Independence goes on to say… What does it mean?

Pg.44-47 Civics Today

The Articles of Confederation

STRENGTHS:

1.To declare war and make peace

2.To coin and borrow money

3.To detail with foreign countries and sign treaties

4.To operate post offices

The First Constitution was called…

WEAKNESSES:

1.The national government could not force the states to obey its laws.

2.It did not have the power to tax

3.It did not have the power to enforce laws

4.Congress lacked strong and steady leadership

5.There was no national army or navy

6.There was no system of national courts

7.Each state could issue its own paper money

8.Each state could put tariffs on trade between states. (A tariff is a tax on goods coming in from another state or country.)

STATES

Under the Articles of Confederation who held the power? National or

State government?

The End!

2011 S. Marshall

Slidell High School

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