• Magna Carta
• Common Law
• Declaration of
Chapter Two: Roots of
– 49 Civics Today
Many of our rights can be traced back to the political and legal traditions of
When did the King John lose his power?
Until 1215 the monarch held absolute power.
The King granted nobles vast amounts of land for their loyalty, military support and tax payments.
Why did the noblemen revolt?
King John began to abuse the rights of the noblemen. Taxes were rising, arrests were common, and land was taken. The nobles rebelled and forced King John to sign the Magna
Carta (Latin for
What were the ideas in the
The Magna Carta was a
of the king. It protected nobles
’ rights, gave
under the law and
trial by peers.
NO ONE WAS ABOVE
– not even the King or Queen
here did the ideas come?
Henry III followed King John and met regularly with nobles and clergy. They gave advise to him. The group grew in numbers and power. The common people were eventually represented.
This group became a legislative body known as
Parliament removed King
James II in 1688 and placed
William and Mary on the throne.
Mary was King
Why was this called the
From that time on no ruler would have more power than the legislature. The English
Bill of Rights in 1689 was passed by Parliament was agreed to by the new monarchs.
What did it state?
Which system of law is based on precedent and customs?
Which system is laws is
’s personal injury, contract and property law based upon?
English Bill of Rights made clear that the Monarch
Raise an Army without Parliament
What rights were preserved?
Free Elections in Parliament
Free Speech in
Cruel and Unusual
Trial By Jury
The Bill of Rights declared:
At one point England did not have written laws. They had rules and these had the force of law. Courts developed and their decisions became the basis of law.
Judges would look for a precedent to decide their rulings.
What are they looking for?
What 2 areas do we use to settle conflict based on common law?
• In the 1600-1700’s England was busy establishing colonies in America
– Ruled by a parent country somewhere else
• First colonist remained loyal to the English political traditions
– Expected a voice in their government and basic rights.
1 st permanent English Settlement?
Little to None
What was the 1 st representative assembly in the
English colony called?
Virginia House of Burgesses
How much power?
Why was this done before they left the ship?
What was the plan called?
Who signed the contract?
41 White Men
Drew up a written plan of government.
1620 A new group of colonists arrived.
Signing the Compact on
Board the Mayflower by
Tompkins H. Matteson
What type of democracy did the
Mayflower Compact establish?
• Why did the American colonists grow used to making their own decisions?
• How did this affect them later on?
Study the two pictures. In what group would you have belonged? Why?
• Policy of Mercantilism forced Colonist to buy
• 1765 Stamp Act
• 1766 Declaratory Act
• 1767 Townshend Acts
• 1773 Tea Act (Unfair trade for E. Br. Ind.Co)
• Coercive Acts (Intolerable
• Colonial business suffered
No Taxation Without
• Boycott Eng. Goods since
Stamp Act was repealed.
• Blocked/ Bost. Tea Party
• First Continental Cong.
King George III responded with force.
What 2 battles changed the minds of colonists?
May 1775 colonist leaders meet again. What was the meeting called? Purpose?
To write a document that would announce independence!
Who was the major contributor to this document? What did it state?
These are the beliefs concerning the rights of individuals. Rough Draft?
That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men,
deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed
whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it
, and to institute new Government, …
The Declaration of Independence goes on to say… What does it mean?
Pg.44-47 Civics Today
The Articles of Confederation
1.To declare war and make peace
2.To coin and borrow money
3.To detail with foreign countries and sign treaties
4.To operate post offices
The First Constitution was called…
1.The national government could not force the states to obey its laws.
2.It did not have the power to tax
3.It did not have the power to enforce laws
4.Congress lacked strong and steady leadership
5.There was no national army or navy
6.There was no system of national courts
7.Each state could issue its own paper money
8.Each state could put tariffs on trade between states. (A tariff is a tax on goods coming in from another state or country.)
Under the Articles of Confederation who held the power? National or
2011 S. Marshall
Slidell High School