Benchmark Ques • In English history, the Magna Carta (1215), the Petition of Right (1628) and the Bill of Rights all reinforced the concept of – A. universal suffrage – B. religious toleration – C. a limited monarchy – D. a laissez-faire economy Democratic Development in England Vocabulary 1. Feudalism 1. 2. System of rule in which powerful landowning lords divide land to gain loyalties Common law 1. A legal system based on customs and court rulings 1. 3. Limited monarchy 1. 4. A man of high rank in a feudal society (loyal and below the king) Vassal 1. 6. Government where a constitution limits the power of the king. Lord 1. 5. Applied to everyone Lesser lord Absolute monarch England (1000-1700) • Absolute monarch – Kings that rule with complete power. – They believed this power came from God • Divine right: – Because of divine right, kings also though they could do anything without any consequences. • William the Conqueror – King of England • Required vassals to pledge loyalty to him first. • Introduced a census • Raised taxes • King Henry II • Introduced common law • Raised taxes • Tried to gain more power (problem with the Church) • King Henry’s son John • Continued to raise taxes and gain more power – Caused a problem with the Pope and the nobles. • In 1215 – Nobles forced King John to sign the Magna Carta • Magna Carta – Reduced the kings power (king had to obey the law) – Protected the rights of the nobles. – Protected all free men from • unreasonable arrest or imprisonment – and gave them the right to a court trial – No new taxes unless agreed on Parliament • Magna Carta led to the creation of – Parliament • Group of law makers • The king now had to get permission from parliament to raise taxes or pass a law. • English Bill of Rights – Forced Monarchs to obey the law and share power with parliament. • Limited monarchy – Constitution limits the power of the monarch King The Catholic Church They protect the king And The land They work the land Lords or Noblemen Knights Peasants and Serfs • Feudalism was the system of loyalties and protections during the Middle Ages. • As the Roman Empire crumbled, emperors granted land to nobles in exchange for their loyalty. • A manor is the land owned by a noble and everything on it. A typical manor consisted of a castle, small village, and farmland. • During the Middle Ages, peasants could no longer count on the Roman army to protect them. • The peasants turned to the landowners, often called lords, to protect them. • Many peasants remained free, but most became serfs. A serf was bound to the land. He could not leave without buying his freedom, an unlikely occurrence • Life for a serf was not much better than the life of a slave. The only difference was that a serf could not be sold to another manor.