Vocabulary • Bellowed – to emit a loud animal-like cry; to roar • Abyss – a deep, immeasurable space; a gulf or cavity • Batten – to secure or tie down • Livid – enraged; furiously angry • Stupor – a suspension of one’s sensibility; apathy • Firmament – the vault of heaven; the skies • Consigned – to hand over or deliver formally; to set apart (in one’s mind) Essential Question: What understanding about Mesopotamian religion is gained from Utnapishtim’s story of the flood? At Your Desks… • Skim over the reading from last night • Fill out the “Talking Points” sheet Reading Strategies… • Use background information… • Don’t read too fast… • Asking questions… • Writing about it… • Talk about it… The Flood Story Was there a world-wide flood? Comparing Arks What makes it incredible? What makes it believable? Story of the Flood • Utnapishtim tells of a time when the earth “teemed” with people • Enlil’s complaint • Ea’s offering of help to Utnapishtim • Utnapishtim’s actions • The Gods bring the Flood waters • Enlil’s anger continues and Ea’s rebuke • Enlil’s reconciliation with Utnapishtim The Gods • Enlil – his anger decides man’s fate • Ea – helps Utnapishtim to survive • Nergal, Ninurta – bring the rains • The Annanuki – cause fires on the earth • Shamash – hides the sun • Ishtar – sorrows over the death of her creatures Mesopotamian Beliefs • The view of the gods presented –Possess human characteristics •Pettiness •Easily irritated •Vindictive •Remorseful •Deceitful Mesopotamian Beliefs • The view of the gods presented –Interaction with humans •Power to destroy/power to preserve •Intercede on behalf of humanity • So, what did Mesopotamians believe? – God’s are to be feared – Man is at the mercy of the gods’ whims Purpose of the Flood Story • History the Mesopotamians • Explain certain natural phenomena – Geography – Extinction of certain species – Violent weather • Provide spiritual “food for thought” – Human mortality – Divine intervention in human affairs – Provides a basis for morality Homework • Read “The Return” pp. 32-33 • In your view, what does Gilgamesh realize about the desire for everlasting life and humankind’s mortality? Explain how key events in this section support your ideas.