The Feasibility of a Hydrogen Powered Economy By: Team Terminators What is hydrogen? Why do we need hydrogen? “We are at the peak of the oil age but the beginning of the hydrogen age. Anything else is an interim solution. The transition will be very messy, and will take many technological paths .....but the future will be hydrogen fuel cells.” Herman Kuipers, Manager of Exploratory Research Royal Dutch Shell “General Motors absolutely sees the long-term future of the world being based on a hydrogen economy.” Larry Burns, Director of R&D, General Motors Why Hydrogen? Goldman Sachs predicts that within the next year (by 2007), crude oil prices could top $100 per barrel, leading to gas prices of over $4 per gallon. Why Hydrogen? The world's demand for energy is projected to double by 2050 in response to population growth and the industrialization of developing countries. Production COAL Natural Gas Production Wind Solar Production If we converted the current U.S. light-duty fleet (some 230 million vehicles) to fuel cell vehicles we would need about 310 billion gallons of water per year. Domestic water use is about 4.8 trillion gallons per year, and 70 trillion gallons a year are used for thermoelectric power generation. Interestingly enough, the refinery industry uses about 300 billion gallons of water a year to produce gasoline Photobiological Biomass Gasification and Pyrolysis Distribution Private Sector R&D Storage Fuel Cells Our Plan for the Future: 2006 – Immediate science and technology education initiatives, including R&D 2010 – First fuel cell cars on the road (motor pool fleets) Fuels cells in buildings/new construction Widespread H2 production Begin to create H2 infrastructure (distribution/manufacture) Tradable permits for CO2 emissions, require auto manufacturers to buy in to 2015 – Fuel cell cars in showrooms H2 fueling stations in major markets (NY, LA, etc. . . ) Fuel cells in private homes Mandate utilities to produce H2 2025 – End internal combustion vehicle manufacture/import Tighten limits on “cap and trade” for CO2 Hydrogen Powered PRT in metropolitan centers 2035 – Sell zero CO2 permits Plan for the Future The amount of money spent on the Apollo program in 1961 is the equivalent of $100 billion today. If this level of funding were dedicated to research and development of hydrogen fuel technologies, we could be free of dependence on fossil fuels by 2035.