Path-Goal Theory Approach AGED 3153 Leadership should be born out of the understanding of the needs of those who would be affected by it. ~ Marian Anderson Overview Path-goal theory approach perspective Conditions of leadership motivation Leader behaviors Subordinate characteristics Task characteristics How does the PGT approach work? Path-Goal Theory Centers on how leaders motivate subordinates to accomplish designated goals Explains how leaders can help subordinates along path to goals selecting specific behaviors best suited to subordinate needs and the situation Goals enhanced employee performance/ satisfaction Path-Goal Theory Based on research about motivation Premise – expectancy theory Subordinates will be motivated if they believe: a. they are capable of performing their work b. their efforts will be rewarded c. the payoff will be worthwhile Challenge Using leadership style that best meets subordinates’ motivational needs • achieved by complimenting or supplementing missing elements Path-Goal Theory Obstacle(s) Subordinates Path Goal(s) Path (Productivity) Effective Path-Goal Leadership Defines goals Clarifies path Removes obstacles Provides support Path-Goal Theory Complex Best understood by identifying large components • • • • Motivation Leader behaviors Subordinate characteristics Task characteristics Leader Behaviors Directive Supportive Participative Achievement-oriented Subordinate Characteristics Task Characteristics Subordinates Motivation Goal(s) (Productivity) Conditions of Leadership Motivation Leadership generates motivation when: It increases the number and kinds of payoffs Path to the goal is clear and easily traveled with coaching and direction Obstacles and roadblocks are removed The work itself is personally satisfying Thought break… Motivations of white-collar & blue-collar workers Blue-collar workers White-collar workers Competent supervision Interesting work Enough information Good pay Enough authority Friendly & helpful co-workers Enough help & equipment Opportunity to see results of work Responsibilities clearly defined Opportunity to develop special abilities Friendly & helpful co-workers Job security Enough authority Interesting work Enough information Responsibilities clearly defined Good pay Opportunity to see results of work Competent supervision Enough help & equipment Thought break results… White-collar workers 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Interesting work Opportunity to develop special abilities Enough information Enough authority Enough help & equipment Friendly & helpful co-workers Opportunity to see results of work Competent supervision Responsibilities clearly defined Good pay Blue-collar workers 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Good pay Enough help & equipment Job security Enough information Interesting work Friendly & helpful co-workers Responsibilities clearly defined Opportunity to see results of work Enough authority Competent supervision Thought break results… What do you notice about the two lists? Why would pay be at the top of the blue-collar list and the bottom of the white-collar list? How do these factors impact motivation? Leader Behaviors Directive Leader gives instructions about task Participative • Including expectations • How it is to be done • Time line Supportive Leader attends human needs • Friendly • Approachable • Treated equal Leader invites sub. to share in decision making • Consults • Obtains ideas/opinions • Integrates suggestions Achievement-Oriented Leader challenges sub. to perform • Highest level • Seeks continuous improvement • Confident in sub. capabilities Subordinate Characteristics Determine how a leader’s behavior will be interpreted by subordinates in a given context. Characteristics to determine satisfaction • • • • Need for affiliation Preferences for structure Desires for control Self-perceived level of task ability Subordinate Characteristics Need for affiliation Friendly and concerned leadership is a source of satisfaction Internal locus of control Subordinates feel in charge of their work Makes them integral part of decision-making process High expectations & need to excel In ambiguous task situations, subordinates feel their efforts will result in effective performance Task Characteristics Design of subordinates’ task Organization’s Primary formal authority system work group of subordinates Task Situations Requiring Leader Involvement Unclear and ambiguous Highly repetitive Leader needs to provide support to maintain subordinate motivation Weak formal authority Leader needs to provide structure If formal authority system is weak, the leader needs to assist subordinates by making rules and work requirements clear Non-supportive/weak group norms Leader needs to help build cohesiveness and role responsibility Path-Goal Theory Matrix Leader Behavior Directive Leadership Supportive Leadership Participative Achievement Oriented Group Members Task Characteristics Dogmatic Authoritarian Ambiguous Unclear rules Complex Unsatisfied Need affiliation Need human touch Repetitive Unchallenging Mundane & Mechanical Autonomous Need for control Need for clarity Ambiguous Unclear Unstructured High Expectations Need to excel Ambiguous Challenging Complex How does the path-goal theory work? Path-Goal Theory Approach Complex but also pragmatic approach Provides a set of assumptions about how different leadership styles, subordinate characteristics & work situation affect subordinate motivation Leaders should choose a style that best fits subordinates’ needs and their work Effective Leaders Tend to subordinates’ needs Help define goals & paths Help confront obstacles What are the strengths of the path-goal theory? Strengths Useful theoretical framework Integrates motivation For understanding how various leadership behaviors affect the satisfaction of subordinates and their work performance. Attempts to integrate the motivation principles of expectancy theory. Practical model Underscores and highlights the important ways leaders help subordinates. What are the weaknesses of the path-goal theory? Criticisms Complex Partially Supported Empirical research studies do not provide full & consistent picture of basic assumptions. Inadequate explanation Incorporates numerous aspect of leadership; consequently, it is difficult to implement. Of the relationship between leadership behavior and worker motivation. Treats leadership as a one-way event All responsibility placed on leader. How do you use the path-goal theory? Application Offers valuable insights Informs leaders about when to be Can be applied in ongoing settings to improve one’s leadership. Directive Supportive Participative Achievement oriented Employed by leaders At all organizational levels and for all types of tasks Summary Focuses on leader motivating followers and helping them over come obstacles to achieve the goal. Must choose a style that fits needs Effective Path-Goal Leadership • • • • Defines goals Clarifies path Removes obstacles Provides support Four major components Motivation Leader behavior Subordinate characteristics Task characteristics Thought break… Read your case study and as a group answer the questions. Questions Describe why Art and Tom appear to be less effective than Carol. 1. 2. How does the leadership of each of the three supervisors affect the motivation of their requective subordinates? 3. If you were consulting with Brako about leadership, what changes and recommendations would you make regarding the supervision of Art, Tom, and Carol?