Basic Phase 1 with Quiz

Icon Exchange:
The Basics
What is PECS?
• PECS: Picture Exchange Communication System
– Communication system for individuals with limited
or no vocal repertoire
– Book is the voice box, Icons are the words for nonvocal children at Croyden
• PECS/Icon Exchange at Croyden is 6 phases with
many subphases
Why so much Training?
• Because some of our kids at Croyden don’t
talk, Icon Exchange is the only way they have
to communicate!
• If you can ask for something you want, your
kid should be able to
Think about it…
• The easier it is for your kids to communicate:
– the less they tantrum
– the easier it is to find effective reinforcers
• Why?
–Because they can tell you what they
So Remember
• Even though Icon Exchange can sometimes be
overwhelming, once your kid learns it:
– The easier of a time you’ll have
– Your kid will have these lifelong communication
• PECS Book: Voice box
• Icons: Words
Quiz #1
• 1.) What does PECS Stand for?
• 2.) To non-vocal children the PECS book is like
their __________ and the Icons are like
Actually Getting Started
• PECS should be student initiated spontaneous
• Goal of Phases 1-1E
– For student to independently exchange icon for
preferred reinforcer
– Phases 1-1C two tutor set up is REQUIRED
• Phase 1F is when PECS book is introduced
Student Initiated Spontaneous
• We want to make sure that when these kids
have mastered Icon Exchange they should
communicate independently when they want
– without prompts
• Because when a child wants something the
MO is there to initiate communication to
exchange the icon to get the reinforcer
Motivation and Reinforcers
• Icon Exchange is based around the fact that
children want the reinforcer enough to initiate
• If your child is not interested in the reinforcer,
they are not going to use Icon Exchange in the
beginning phases
– If this is the case you need to do preference
assessments. And do them frequently!!
Quiz #2
1.) After mastery of Icon Exchange, students should have ability
a. Independently communicate (without prompts)
b. Initiate communication
c. Communicate vocally with spoken words or sentences
d. Both a & b are correct
2.) If the child is not exchanging the icon what
should you do?
Two Tutor Setup: Tutor One
• Tutor one who sits in front of the child
reinforces responses within ½ second
• Tutor one also entices child with reinforcers to
encourage responses
• Enticing is the act of using a reinforcer
naturally to make the reinforcer look more
• So non-verbally, naturally, and appropriately
using a reinforcer
• i.e. making a horse toy gallop, pretending to
eat food, pushing a car
Prompting vs. Enticing
• Prompting is using the reinforcer as a SD to
exchange the icon
– i.e. waiving arms around with a car making siren
• Enticing is using the reinforcer in a natural and
appropriate way to build a child’s MO
Which Is Which?
Quiz #3
• 1.) What are some examples of enticing?
• 2.) What are some examples of prompting?
Two Tutor Setup: Tutor Two
• Tutor Two is there to prompt responses in the
beginning phases
• Do not rush prompting! Wait for student to
make the response first
• Some phases have more prompting than
others, make sure you are following these
• Tutor two is NOT part of the social
interactions. There to help prompting only
when necessary
Quiz #4
• 1.) Who’s tutor one and two?
• 2.) What are their responsibilities?
Unintentional External Prompts
• These are cues you may not be aware you are
giving to your child, but can cause them to
respond NOT based on just the want for a
– Placing book on table
– Pushing book in front of them, tapping book
– Open hand waiting for icon
Don’t Forget!
• Do frequent reinforcer assessments to make
sure you have a powerful enough reinforcer
• Make sure you have the correct icon for the
– If you don’t have it…ASK TA’S
– Having incorrect icons or icons that are too broad
(i.e. toy icon) isn’t functional and can cause
incorrect pairing
If You Don’t Have Good
• The children won’t mand for what they don’t
• And you could run into tantrums
• Generalization of PECS means that children
can use it across tutors and locations
• We are not just able to speak in one setting,
so your children shouldn’t be limited to this
• After phase 1F start generalizing PECS around
the classroom, hallway, etc.
• In order to make sure your child can ask for
things whenever needed, their book needs to
stay in the same spot
– This helps them learn PECS faster!
• Book location forms are in your child’s binder
to make sure that all tutors across shifts keep
book in the same spot
When To Use PECS
• PECS is NOT a procedure!!
– You do not run it at one time and then move on
– Your child should ALWAYS have the opportunity to
ask for things
• Even if your child has mastered PECS, their book
should always be accessible and available
– Except in the case of children who are completely
Points and PECS
• You will lose points if the book is:
• A) Not returned to booth after snack
– Doesn’t matter if child can talk/has mastered PECS
• B) Inaccessible
– I.E.- Available, but not within easy reach (under a toy,
across the booth, in procedure bin, etc)
• C) Unavailable
– I.E.- Not where the child is…
unless instructed otherwise by a supervisor
Book Availability & Accessibility
available and accessible
available but inaccessible
unavailable and inaccessible
Quiz #5
• 1.) Your child’s book should always be ______
and _______.
• 2.) When and where should your child use