Let`s Talk About PECS

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Let’s Talk About PECS
THE
PICTURE EXCHANGE COMMUNICATION
SYSTEM
CREATED BY
ANDREW S. BONDY, PH.D.
LORI A. FROST, M.S., CCC-SLP
Picture Exchange Communication System
 Research based w/ many acquiring spoken language
 Students are initiators
 Dramatic effect upon reducing negative behaviors
 It is rapidly acquired
“To Die For” Inventory
Present selection (5-8) of edibles. What does the
student go for over and over? Preferred items the
student reaches for within 5 seconds.
2. Remove the most preferred item and watch for
what the student goes for next?
3. Repeat this procedure for toys, books, etc.
4. Using the most preferred edibles and nonedibles,
rank the items by assessing what the student goes
for next.
1.
Vocabulary Selection Worksheet
(most to least favored & unconventional)
Things your child likes
to eat.
Things your child likes
to drink.
Activities your child
likes
(watching TV, spinning,
sitting in
a special chair,
squeezing)
Toys your child likes
Social games your child
likes (chase, tickle…)
Places your child likes
to visit
What your child
chooses to do during
“free time”
People your child
recognizes and with
whom he/she enjoys
spending time.
PECS
Phase I
Goal: approaches people to
initiate communication
trainer
student
facilitator
Phase 1
The Physical Exchange
Terminal Objective:
Upon seeing a “highly preferred” item,
the student will:
1. Pick up the picture of the item,
2. Reach toward the trainer,
3. And release the picture into the
trainer’s hand.
Phase 1
Training Protocol
1. No verbal prompts.
2. Use more than one preferred item –
presented one at a time.
3. 30 opportunities throughout the day
for the student to request.
4. 2 trainers are necessary.
5. Data sheet for Phase 1.
PECS
Phase II
Goal: generalization across people,
places, reinforcers, and distance.
Phase II
Expanding Spontaneity
Terminal Objective:
The student:
1. Goes to his/her communication
board,
2. Pulls the picture off,
3. Goes to the adult,
4. And releases the picture into the
adult’s hand.
5. Eliminate subtle prompts.
Phase II
Training Protocol
1. No verbal prompts.
2. Only 1 picture presented at a time.
3. Conduct reinforcer inventory
4.
5.
6.
7.
frequently.
Use a variety of trainers.
30 structured trials + 30
spontaneous.
Fade open hand prompt.
Fade physical assistance.
PECS
Phase III
Goal: Discriminates pictures of
objects/activities to request.
PECS Phase III
Discrimination Training
Terminal Objective:
The student sill request desired items by:
1. Going to a communication board,
2. Selecting the appropriate picture
from an array,
3. Going to a communication partner,
4. And giving the picture.
5. Student begins to carry the book.
Phase III
Training Protocol
1. No verbal prompts used during this
2.
3.
4.
5.
phase.
Vary position of pictures on the
communication board until
discrimination is mastered.
Do not say “NO!”
No facilitator needed.
Criterion: 90%
Discrimination Training
1. Teach discrimination between a preferred
and a non-preferred item.
A. Set up a situation during which the student is likely
to request a particular item. With the object in view
and without verbal prompts, present the
communication board with 2 pictures on it. If the
student gives the appropriate picture, the trainer
provides the object and praises the student.
B. If the student gives the wrong picture, give the nonpreferred item and no social reaction.
Teaching Discrimination Strategies
“Blank” Distractor
vs
Highly Preferred
Colored Pix
vs
black/white
Big
vs
small
Highly preferred
vs
Low preferred
Photo
vs
Line drawing
Picture
lined up with
item
3 dimensional
Representation of
Picture
Colored
background
Put picture on items.
Fade the item.
4 Step Error Correction
Trainer “shows” correct picture
PROMPT
Trainer “shows” the preferred item again. Prompt the student to give the correct
picture. DO NOT give the preferred item – ONLY SOCIAL.
Trainer gives non-related direction or creates “pause”.
Trainer “shows” the preferred item again.
Correspondence Check
When student discriminates between 2-3 items.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Show 2 items on tray.
Present pictures on book.
Student gives the picture.
Present the tray and say, “Take it”.
If student selects corresponding item
reinforce.
If student selects the incorrect item,
say, “You asked for ___” and gesture
toward the preferred item.
Then gesture to the preferred item
and say, “If you want this then tell
me,” while gesturing to the preferred
picture.
Wait 5 seconds. Repeat trial.
PECS
Phase IV
Sentence Structure
Terminal Objective:
1. The student requests present and
nonpresent items using multi-word phrase
by
a. Going to the book,
b. Picking up a picture of “I want”
c. Picking out a picture of what is wanted,
d. Putting the pictures on the sentence strip,
e. Removing the strip from the book,
f. Approaching the communicative partner,
g. And giving the sentence strip to him/her.
Phase IV
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Training Protocol
No verbal prompts used during this stage.
Continue periodic “correspondence” checks.
Use “backward chaining” to train during this phase.
Create at least 20 opportunities per day for the
student to request during functional activities.
The “I want” picture is attached to the left side of the
sentence strip. When the child wants a single item,
physically guide him/her to put the picture onto the
sentence strip next to the “I want” picture. Then
guide the child to give the sentence strip to the
trainer.
Training Protocol
Continued
6.
Mastery when student is able to attach the picture
of the desired item to the sentence strip (which
already contains the “I want” picture).
7.
Moving the “I want” picture to the sentence
strip.
8.
Preferred item is not in sight.
9.
Criterion 90%
PECS
Phase V
Goal: Responds to “What do you
want?” and spontaneously requests.
PECS
Phase V
Responding to “What do you want?”
Terminal Objective:
The student:
1. Can spontaneously request a
variety of items
2. And can answer the question,
“What do you want?”
Phase V
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Training Protocol
Continue to verbally reinforce each correct
response.
Use “delayed prompting” to train during this
phase.
Precede and follow each training session with
opportunities for spontaneous requesting.
Create at least 20 opportunities per day for the
student to request during functional activities.
Criterion 90%
PECS
Phase VI
Goal: Comments and Requests
(in answer and spontaneous)
PECS
Phase VI
Responsive and Spontaneous
Commenting
Terminal Objective:
The student appropriately answers
1. “What do you want?”
2. “What do you see?”
3. “What do you have?”
4. And similar questions when these
questions are asked randomly.
Work Together for Communication
 Give it a try!
 Watch
communication
begin.
 Involve parents.
 Have fun!
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