The Fall of The Tokugawa Shogunate

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“Bakumatsu”
The Fall of The
Tokugawa Shogunate
1853-1867
The Arrival
of Cmdr
Perry
July 1853
Designed to Intimidate
Black Ships
Western Technology
Curiosity on both sides
Delivered president Fillmore’s Letter
Return of Cmdr Perry
Signed Treaty of
Kanagawa
Trade
Diplomacy
Aid to Victims of
Shipwreck
Treaties with the
Dutch, French and
Britain followed
Yoshida Shoin
Famous Teacher
Tried to learn the
secrets of Western
Superiority
Mentor to Ito Hirobumi
Led Choshu rebellion
Executed by the
Bakufu in 1859
Revered as one of the
fathers of Modern
Japan
Sonno Joi!
Many Japanese were
Xenophobic and resented
Western Presence
Many Clans began to lose faith
in the Bakufu and its ability to
stand up to the more powerful
West
Extra-Territoriality
They instead put their faith in
the Emperor
Began a new movement“Revere The Emperor, Expel
The Barbarian” – “Sonno Joi”
Emperor Komei
Extra-Territoriality
Extra-territoriality was a problem for
many Japanese
Extra-territoriality meant that Foreigners
could not be tried under Japanese law.
Many Clans such as the Satsuma and
Choshu Clans ignored extraterritoriality to their Peril.
Rebellions
In 1863 the Emperor issued an “Order to expel the
Barbarians”
Many Disgruntled Samurai began killing westerners
They also began to defy the authority of the Shogunate
The Richardson Affair/Namagumi Incident
Charles Lennox Richardson was a British Trader
In September 1862 he refused to bow to a local
Satsuma Daimyo
Samurai attacked and killed him
Led to the bombardment of Kagoshima
The Bombardment of Shimonoseki
June 1863 Choshu fired on US ships
Closed the narrow Shimonoseki Strait for over a
year
September 1864 British, French and Dutch
Warships and Ground forces retaliated and
Decimated the Town of Shimonoseki
Choshu/Satsuma Alliance
1864 clashes with westerners
convinced Choshu and Satsuma
clans of the need to modernise.
1866, Satcho Alliance
Between two staunch imperial
loyalist Clans
At first, secret.
Later, Overt.
Intelligence gathering
The Bakufu sent abroad many representatives to
learn the ways of the west.
Many representatives of Choshu and Satsuma
also travelled to Europe and America.
They studied western systems of Government,
Military, Law and Education.
Pressure on Shogun
1860-1865 the Bakufu
struggled to control the
Daimyo
In 1866 it launched a
military campaign to crush
resistance
It was denied success by
the Satcho Alliance
The shogunate became
increasingly impotent
In December 1867, Emporer Komei died and was
succeeded by his 16 year old son (Meiji)
The new Emperor was heavily influenced by the
Satcho alliance
1867 Shogun Cedes Power
In 1867 the Satcho
alliance began to attack
the Shogunate Forces in
Edo
Satcho also moved on
Kyoto and directly
pressured the Emperor to
strip the Tokugawa
Shogunate of power
In late 1867 the Tokugawa
gave up power for the
sake of Stability
Main Points to Remember:
“Bakumatsu” is the name
given to the period 18531867
The arrival of westerners in
1853 brought instability
“Sonno Joi” - “Revere the
Emperor, Expel the
Barbarian” became a
catchcry for those who
resented Tokugawa rule
Violence aimed at
westerners (Richardson
Affair) led to severe
consequences such as the
bombardments of
Kagoshima and
Shimonoseki
Such defeats led to the
realisation of the need to
modernise
Intelligence gathering
missions were sent to
western countries
Satsuma and Choshu
clans formed the Satcho
alliance
Satcho alliance forced the
Tokugawa shogunate to
cede power in late 1867
Bibliography
Fewster, Stuart & Gorton, Tony. “Japan:
From Shogun to Superstate” Brooks
Waterloo, Victoria,1988.
www.wikipedia.org
http://www.jref.com/
http://ocw.mit.edu/ans7870/21f/21f.027j/
menu/index.html
Questions for Test
What is the name given to the period 18531867?
What does “Sonno Joi” mean?
Name some of the catalysts for the
Bombardments of Shimonoseki and
Kagoshima.
What was the Satcho Alliance?
Why were missions sent to western
countries?
When did the Tokugawa Shogunate cede
power and to whom?
Subjects to cover
Boshin War
Military Reforms
Education Reforms
Genro
Satsuma Rebellion
Sino-Japanese
War 1894
Zaibatsu
Russo-Japanese
War
WW1
Taisho Democracy
Tokyo Earthquake
1923
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