Japan returns to Isolation

Japan returns to Isolation
GPS Standards
• SSWH11 The students will investigate the political
and social changes in Japan and in China from the
seventeenth century CE to mid-nineteenth
century CE.
– A. Describe the policies of the Tokugawa and Qing
rules; include how Oda Nobunaga laid the ground
work for the subsequent Tokugawa rulers and how
Kangxi came to rule for such a long period in China.
– B. Analyze the impact of population growth and its
impact on the social structure of Japan and China.
Essential Question
• How did the social structure in Japan differ
from the social structure in China?
• How did Oda Nobunaga lay the ground work
for Tokugawa Shogunate in Japan?
Feudalism in Japan
• “Warring States”- time in Japanese’s history
• Samurai- seized control of old feudal estates.
Offered peasants protection in return for
• Daimyo: Warrior chieftains, became lords in a
new kind of Japanese feudalism.
– Similar to European feudalism.
Oda Nobunaga
• Brutal and ambitious daimyo who defeated his
rivals and seized the imperial capital Kyoto in
• Motto= “Rule the empire by force”.
• First to use firearms effectively in Japan
• Was not able to unify Japan.
• Seppuku= the ritual suicide of a samurai
Toyotomi Hideyoshi
• Nobunaga’s best general- continued leader’s
• Set out to destroy the daimyo that remained
• Combined brute force with political alliances,
he controlled most of the country.
• Eventually conquered both Korea and China.
Tokugawa Ieyasu
• Completed the unification of Japan.
• He became the sole ruler = Shogun.
• Moved the capital to Edo(small fishing village)
became the city of Tokyo.
• Tamed the daimyo by setting up an “alternate
attendance policy”. = restoring centralized
government to Japan.
• Founded the Tokugawa Shogunate
Tokugawa Shogunate
• Held power in Japan until 1867
• Shoguns followed Ieyasu advice: “ Take care of
the people. Strive to be virtuous. Never
neglect to protect the country.”
• Brought welcome into Japan
Life in Tokugawa Japan
• Stability, prosperity, and isolation under
Tokugawa shoguns.
• Farmers produced more food and population
• Merchants and wealthy prospered.
• Majority of peasants were heavily taxed
• Japanese culture spread
Society in Tokugawa Japan
• Emperor had the top rank(figurehead).
• Shogun- military commander- was the actual
• Daimyo- powerful samurai
• Samurai warriors came next.
• Peasants and artisans.
• Merchants were at the bottom but moved
their way up as the economy suspended.
Society in Tokugawa Japan
• Peasant farmers bore main tax burden.
• Shift from rural to urban societies.
• Women found jobs in entertainment, textile,
manufacturing, and publishing.
• Most women worked in the fields, managed
the household, cared for children, and obeyed
their husband without question.
Culture in Tokugawa Shogunate
• Traditional culture strived
• Plays/dramas based on ancient warriors and
their courage in battle.
• Hung paintings that showed scenes from
classical literature.
• Haiku- 5-7-5 Syllable, 3 line verse poetry, this
presented images rather than ideas.
• Kabuki= theater
• Portuguese hoped to get involved with trade
in China and Southeast Asia.
• Brought: clocks, eyeglasses, tobacco, firearms,
and other items from Europe.
• Daimyo welcomed them and their cannons
and muskets
– Purchased weapons from the Portuguese and
soon began their own production.
Christian Missionaries
• Christian missionaries began arriving in Japan,
came along with trade.
• Missionaries were changing traditional
Japanese beliefs and sometimes involved
themselves in local politics.
• Christian Rebels started un up rise against the
shogunate- decided Christianity was the root
of the uprising.
Japan in Isolation
• Persecution of Christians was part of an
attempt to control foreign ideas. –
• “closed country policy”.
• Nagasaki- remained open port to Dutch and
Chinese merchants.
• Japanese were forbidden to leave for fear of
bringing back foreign ideas.