Oral Presentation Skills

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SMMRE
UNDERGRADUATE
RESEARCH PROJECT
GUIDELINES
Academic Session (2009/10)
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DrNorliaSMMRE(Slides1-71)
3/25/2010
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SMMRE
Prepared by Dr Norlia Baharun
25 Mac 2010
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The oral presentation is of 15 mins
duration
The next 5 mins will be on Q & A
The oral presentation should be in the
style of a scientific presentation:
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INTRODUCTION
 STATEMENT OF OBJECTIVES
 SUMMARY OF METHODOLOGY
 PRESENTATION and INTERPRETATION
OF RESULTS
 DISCUSSION OF RESULTS and THEIR
BROADER IMPLICATIONS
 SUMMARY OF CONCLUSIONS or
RECOMMENDATIONS

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PROJECT CONTENT IS LARGELY
MARKED IN THE WRITTEN REPORT
 THEREFORE, MARKS FOR ORAL
PRESENTATION WILL FOCUS ON THE
EFFECTIVENESS OF COMMUNICATION
OF THE MAJOR FINDINGS OF THE
PROJECT AND ON ABILITY TO
RESPOND TO RELEVANT QUESTIONS

FYPGuidelines(2009-10)
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• Consider your audience
• Anticipate opposing arguments
• Make your audience feel something
• Make your argument seem like
common sense
• Sound like you know what you’re
talking about
• Get the facts!
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Created by Cindy Farnum
• Have conviction
• Save the strongest argument for
last
• Give examples and be specific
• Give your paper a clear title
• Avoid exaggeration
• Give referrals
• Read your audience’s body
language
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Created by Cindy Farnum
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Explain, interpret, justify, not just describe
Write large (Fonts >24)
Use color, but sparingly, consistently
Use pictures (and even animations)
No full sentences (just terse outline)
Make the sub-story coherent and selfcontained
One corollary: no standalone graphs
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
Talk Tips -Preparation
Practice
 Dry run followed by slide-by-slide
analysis
 Pay attention to time and practice for
time
 Practice for varying audience
backgrounds
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Talk Tips –Presentation
Speak clearly, make eye contact
 Don’t read slides
 Pay attention to posture
 Eye contact, shift gaze
 Plan on shedding slides
 Admit shortcomings, don’t wait for
questions
 Analogies and jokes and help
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 Know
your audience
• Help them understand
• Keep it short; use signposts; get
the contents right.
• Make sure you’ve covered the
bases
• (Leave some simple mistakes in?)
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“Let’s see, what can I ask the candidate?”
The examiners may have decided before the
exam whether to pass you.
Defense, viva, exam, ...
viva = “viva voce” = “lively discussion”
The exam is to check it’s your work...
Talk fluently about the work; show you’ve
thought about it (which you have!).
...and a chance to clarify things that aren’t
clear in the thesis.
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These are areas where corrections are
likely.
Know & understand your results.
Fine-tune presentation
Practice ! Practice ! Practice ! (esp. for grads)
Know the literature you cited
Anticipate possible questions, including
implications of your results, the logic of
your
discussion, and relevance of your work.
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 What
should you expect at the
defense?
• Could you fail?
• Could it be one of life’s
memorable events?
• What are the characteristics of a
great defense?
 • How do you get there?
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•
•
Primarily a presentation of the thesis work:
Like a (long) talk at a (small) conference
But there are likely to be lots of questions
Some possible goals of the defense are to:
make sure you did it
make sure you understand what you did
make sure you understand the significance/context
of what you did
probe your general understanding of the field of
the thesis
make sure the committee understands what you did
test your ability to present
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Giving an oral
presentation is the final
stage in the assessment of
your Final Year Project
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Table 2.1 : Check List
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List
CONTENT
Check List
1
Select Title of Project
√
2
Proposal Submitted
√
3
Experimental work carried
out
according to Plan
√
4
Final Draft
submitted
9 April 2010
(14th academic
week)- latest by 4
pm
5
Oral Presentation (viva)
10-13 May 2010
6.
Final Thesis submission
21 May 2010
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SMMRE
Students should develop :
 the
ability to do scientific
inquiry
 the understanding about
scientific inquiry
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 Students
must actively
participate in scientific
investigations and
 Students need to
understand that
experiments are guided by
concepts and are
performed to test ideas
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SMMRE
 Students
need to learn how
to analyze evidence and
data from scientific
investigations or databases
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Delivery
of a speech –
is easy
Organization of a
speech – is difficult
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A. How to organize an
oral presentation
B. How to deliver
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You must do four things:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Make it short
Make the organization obvious
Make the ideas simple and vivid
Summarize and be prepared for
questions
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 You
need to do only four things:
1. Set the stage and the audience
2. Have an insurance policy instead
of a manuscript
3. Use visual aids
4. Talk loudly, slowly and vigorously
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 What
explanation do you expect
to develop from your data?
 How confident are you about the
accuracy of your data?
 How certain are you of those
results?
 Is there a better way to do the
investigation ??
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Is there an alternative scientific
explanation for the one you
proposed?
 How do you account for an
explanation that is different from
others?
 Do you need more evidence?
 What are the sources of
experimental error?
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 Questions
like these makes it
possible for students:
- to analyze data
- to develop a richer knowledge
base
- to reason using scientific concepts
- to make connections between
evidence and explanations and
recognize alternative explanations
FYPGuidelines(2009-10)
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**Ideas should be
examine and discuss
with your supervisors
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SMMRE
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 Your
mental set
 Preparation
 The presentation
 Your delivery
 Question time
 Visual aids
 Conclusions
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Imagine that you’re simply
having a conversation
 Ways
to keep calm ??
If you’re really bad, try
meditation and muscle
relaxation. Imagine yourself
giving a good confident
presentation. Practise in front
of a friend.
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 Background
research –
use wide range of
sources
 Personal organization Do preparation well in
advance
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 What
is the purpose? Inform,
show progress, persuade,
entertain?
 What are the objectives of the
talk? Have in mind your goal.
eg. to explain a particular
topic in general terms
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 What
are the main points?
Concentrate on what is really
important.
 Don’t be over-ambitious. There
is a time limit and a limit to what
people can be taken in.
 Cue cards suits some people. Should
just have key words, not the text. Postcard
size. Number them.
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 Format? Debate, conversation with
audience, lecture?
 Practise. To build confidence.
Need full-scale rehearsal for timing.
 Consider
your audience.
Present state of knowledge?
 Write out first draft. Review this
and take out irrelevant material.
Consistent? Flows smoothly? Don’t
try to learn verbatim.
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Title: Give the title and stick
to it.
 Dramatise. Find a memorable
way to get point across.
 Be positive. Maintain the
appearance of being
confident.
 Structured. Make presentation
structured. (see next)
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Example:
1. State main issue or
problem.
2. Give examples to
illustrate.
3. End with a summary.
4. Handle questions.
5. Make a final statement.
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 Introduction:
Explain the outline
and structure and the aims of the
talk.
 Main part: Explain the main
project with supporting
information. Explain any
complicated terms.
 Conclusions: Remind the
audience of the subject area and
the focus of the presentation.
 Try to tell an interesting project .
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 Use
specific examples if
theoretical or abstract.
 Use linking statements.
 Use visual aids.
 Use brief summaries at
appropriate points.
 Don’t
preach.
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 Write
for the ear, not
the eye. We don’t speak the
way we write. Sentences will be
shorter and punchier. Avoid
long words, or words that
you’re going to find difficult to
pronounce.
 Tape recording. Listen
to your rehearsed talk without
notes. Flows logically? Voice
and pace not monotonous?
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Pace: Don’t speak too rapidly. Neither
speak deliberately slowly. If you speak
naturally, pace should be OK.
Timing: Keep to time limit.
Pause at key points.
Don’t read from a script. This can sound
boring. At the very least, don’t sound as
if you’re reading.
Eye contact. Connected to last
point – look around at audience
when possible.
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Voice. Vary the tone and
the pace (slightly). How
you say it is important.
Don’t shout or whisper.
If using a mike, ask the
back if they can hear.
Articulation. Don’t slur
your speech, making it
more difficult to hear.
Avoid repeated phrases.
“you know”, etc.
Smile and be confident.
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 Mobility.
Try not to walk
around. Don’t sit down. Some
animation is desirable. Don’t
slouch or lean on the wall.
Avoid distractions, e.g. gum
chewing.
 Don’t digress. Difficult to get
back on track afterwards.
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Depend on time available
Listen carefully.
Rephrase difficult questions. To
clarify understanding.
Take time to consider. OK to say “I
don’t know”.
Reply to whole audience.
Don’t take hostile questions
personally and don’t be hostile in
tone when answering questions (or
asking questions of others).
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Be careful of colour.
Colour on an OHP
can be too faint (esp orange and yellow).
 Font size. 16-18-point Times Roman is
recommended.
 DON’T USE CAPITALS.
 Don’t try to cram too much in.
 Leave on long enough to read.
 Put on your key points. Supplement or
explain what is meant by these headings.
 Uncover points one-by-one?
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Figures. Useful for holding interest.
Pointing. Easier to point on an overhead
than screen.
Avoid too much room light near screen.
But don’t plunge audience in darkness.
Stand so that not in the way of screen.
Number slides in case you mix them up.
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Keep calm and be positive. Rehearsal can
help out with timing. Tape recording even
better.
What are your main points? Be concise,
focussed and well structured.
Linkages. Keep it flowing well.
Pace. Be natural and keep to the required
time.
Overheads. Try not to cram too much in.
Keep to main headings
Questions. Answer them carefully.
FYPGuidelines(2009-10)
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OUTLINE
Planning
Preparation
Practice
Performance
Questions
Who are you talking to?
 Why are you talking to them?
 How long have you got?
 What findings are you going to
tell?

•
•
•
•
Outline and sketch slides
Prepare slides
Proof read
Prepare notes brief keywords and phrases,
except maybe first couple of
paragraphs
1 - 2 minutes per slide
Generic 15 min Conference Presentation
Title Slide (1) Title, author, affiliation, acknowledgements
Rationale (1-2) Why this is interesting
Methods (1-2) What you did
Results (2-4) What did you find and what does it mean
Summary (1) One thing you want them to remember
Use Images & Graphics
Minimise text & numbers
Light text on dark background
Avoid distracting backgrounds
Use large sans serif fonts
Helvetica or Arial rather than serif fonts like Times
24 pt is minimum, 32
pt, or even 36 pt is better
Use Images & Graphics
Minimise text & numbers
Light text on dark background
Avoid distracting backgrounds
Use large sans serif fonts
Mix upper and lower case
ALL CAPITALS IS HARDER TO READ,
ALTHOUGH IT MIGHT BE OK FOR THE
ODD TITLE
Use Images & Graphics
Minimise text & numbers
Light text on dark background
Avoid distracting backgrounds
Use large sans serif fonts
Mix upper and lower case
Use colour to highlight text
Use high contrast colours for important lines,
symbols or text, and lower contrast colours for
less important lines, symbols or text.
But use a small number of colours
Use Images & Graphics
Minimise text & numbers
Light text on dark background
Avoid distracting backgrounds
Use large sans serif fonts
Mixture upper and lower case
Use colour to highlight text
Keep figures simple
Show means, sd, effect size statistics, but not test statistics
Y axis (units)
80
*
60
40
20
0
1
2
3
4
5
Condition
6
7
8
Use Images & Graphics
Minimise text & numbers
Light text on dark background
Avoid distracting backgrounds
Use large sans serif fonts
Mixture upper and lower case
Use colour to highlight text
Keep figures simple
Thick lines and large symbols
20
Y Axis (units)
r = 0.89
15
10
Participant 2
5
0
20
30 40 50 60
X Axis (units)
70
Use Images & Graphics
Minimise text & numbers
Light text on dark background
Avoid distracting backgrounds
Use large sans serif fonts
Mixture upper and lower case
Use colour to highlight text
Keep figures simple
Thick lines and large symbols
Progressive disclosure
•
•
•
Practice, practice, practice
Get feedback, and use it.
Be ruthless –
delete unnecessary
information
• Don’t
•
•
•
•
Apologise
Speak loudly & clearly
Use short simple sentences
Avoid jargon & abbrev.
Vary pitch, tone, volume, speed
and pauses
•
•
•
•
Avoid distracting
mannerisms
Relax, be enthusiastic
Make eye contact
Keep an eye on the time
remaining
•
Explain figures, and
point to important aspects
•
Give a clear and concise
summary, then stop.
•
Don’t go over the time.
Ever.
•
Anticipate likely questions
and prepare extra slides with
the answers
•
Maybe even plant a stooge
Paraphrase questions
1. so that other people hear
the question
2. to check that you
understand the questions
3. to stall while you think
about an answer
•
•
•
If you don’t know the
answer, say so.
Offer to find out.
Ask the audience.
Like most things,
the best way to learn
is to do
FYPGuidelines(2009-10)
DrNorliaSMMRE(Slides1-71)
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FYPGuidelines(2009-10)
DrNorliaSMMRE(Slides1-71)
3/25/2010
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