Chapter 9 Review QuestionsFinal

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Chapter 9:
Reproduction
Section 9.1 Review
page 320
Key Concepts
1.
Name two forms of asexual
reproduction. Give an
example of an organism
that undergoes each form.
1. Name two forms of asexual reproduction. Give an
example of an organism that undergoes each
form.
Sample answers:
•
•
•
•
binary fission - bacteria
parthenogenesis - honeybees
planaria - fragmentation
plant cuttings - vegetative
propagation
2.
What is the main advantage
of sexual reproduction?
2. What is the main advantage of
sexual reproduction?
Increased genetic variation
3.
How are asexual and sexual
reproduction similar? How do they
differ?
3.
How are asexual and sexual
reproduction similar? How do they
differ?
Similar - produce new individuals;
Different - number of parents, amounts of
genetic variation
Critical Thinking
4.
Explain: What is fragmentation?
Give a description of how it works.
Explain: What is fragmentation? Give
a description of how it works.
4.
A complete new individual grows from a
broken off piece of its parent.
A planarian attaches its tail to a surface and
pulls apart.
Then each part grows into a complete
organism.
5.
Evaluate: If banana farmers began
to breed bananas through sexual
reproduction, would this make
bananas completely resistant to
disease? Explain your answer.
5.
Evaluate: If banana farmers began to
breed bananas through sexual
reproduction, would this make bananas
completely resistant to disease?
Explain your answer.
No, but it would increase genetic
variation and thus increase the
chance of resistance.
Challenge
6.
Synthesize: Amphibian eggs are soft and
slimy. Reptile eggs have a tough leathery
shell. Most amphibians lay their eggs in
water. Many reptile eggs are laid in nests
on dry ground. How are amphibian and
reptile eggs each adapted to their own
environments?
6.
Synthesize: Amphibian eggs are soft and slimy. Reptile
eggs have a tough leathery shell. Most amphibians lay
their eggs in water. Many reptile eggs are laid in nests on
dry ground. How are amphibian and reptile eggs each
adapted to their own environments?
• Reptile shell reduces water loss;
Amphibian
• No outer protection from water loss is
needed
• Sperm can fertilize eggs by swimming
to them through the water.
Section 9.2 Review
page 329
Key Concepts
1.
Name three ways plants can
reproduce asexually?
1.
Name three ways plants can reproduce
asexually?
• tubers
• runners
• rhizomes
2. What enables what plants reproduce
even in dry conditions?
2. What enables what plants
reproduce even in dry conditions?
spores, pollens, and seeds
3. How are flowers related to seeds?
to fruits?
3. How are flowers related to seeds? to
fruits?
Flowers have the male and
female parts necessary to
produce seeds and fruits.
Critical Thinking
4. Evaluate: Why do many plants
reproduce asexually when their
environmental conditions are good?
4. Evaluate: Why do many plants
reproduce asexually when their
environmental conditions are good?
Vegetative propagation is faster and
more efficient.
5. Compare and Contrast: Use a Venn
diagram to show the differences and
similarities between gymnosperms
and angiosperms.
5. . Compare and Contrast: Use a Venn
diagram to show the differences and
similarities between gymnosperms and
angiosperms.
gymnosperms - male and female
cones seeds with winglike
structures;
angiosperms - flowers; seeds in
fruit.
similarities: vascular; both male and
female structures; embryo inside
a seed
Challenge
6. Infer: In a tundra, most plants
produce spores. In a rainforest,
many plants produce flowers and
fruit. What factors might play a role
in shaping the plant life in each
biome?
6. Infer: In a tundra, most plants produce
spores. In a rainforest, many plants
produce flowers and fruit. What factors
might play a role in shaping the plant life
in each biome?
Sample Answer:
A rain forest might have more animals to
help pollinate flowers, while a tundra
might have more wind.
Section 9.3 Review
page 340
Key Concepts
1. What are the specialized
reproductive cells in males and in
females?
1. What are the specialized
reproductive cells in males and in
females?
sperm and egg
2. How does sexual intercourse result
in pregnancy?
2. How does sexual intercourse result
in pregnancy?
Sperm enter vagina, swim through
uterus and into fallopian tubes,
fertilize a mature egg.
3. How are the placenta and the
umbilical cord related?
3. How are the placenta and the
umbilical cord related?
Umbilical cord has blood vessels to
and from placenta, where blood
exchanges materials.
Critical Thinking
4. Sequence: Describe the sequence
of events between ovulation and
menstruation.
4. Sequence: Describe the sequence of
events between ovulation and menstruation.
• After ovulation the egg enters the fallopian
tube
• The egg and the lining of the uterus break
down and are expelled through the vagina.
5. Infer: Sperm cells have very little
cytoplasm, while egg cells have a lot
of cytoplasm. How do these
different structures support the
different functions of eggs and
sperm?
5. Infer: Sperm cells have very little
cytoplasm, while egg cells have a lot of
cytoplasm. How do these different
structures support the different
functions of eggs and sperm?
• Sperm cells are small and mobile.
• The egg need not travel quickly
but needs materials for many cell
divisions.
Challenge
6. Analyze: Children born to mothers
who smoke during pregnancy have a
higher rate of respiratory disease
tan children born to nonsmoking
mothers. Explain how a mother’s
tobacco use could affect the fetus
during development.
6. Analyze: Children born to mothers who smoke during
pregnancy have a higher rate of respiratory disease than
children born to nonsmoking mothers. Explain how a
mother’s tobacco use could affect the fetus during
development.
• Chemicals pass from smoke through lungs,
into the mother’s blood, through placenta
to fetus.
• These chemicals can increase heart rate.
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