1011225簡報Ppt0000003

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以學生「學習」為中心的
教學設計
史美瑤 博士
麻州大學教學與教師發展中心副主任
December 25, 2012
Who Are We?
UMass Amherst
Established in 1863
Fall 2012
Students = 28,236
undergraduates = 21,928
graduates = 6,308
Faculty = 1,235 (including 228 non-tenure system)
Carnegie classification =RU/VH, public university
Challenges
#1
教與學之間的落差
#2 Outcome-Based Learning
Assessment
How much did students learn?
Vs.
What did student learn?
#3 Indicators: (指標)
Critical thinking skill
Collaboration (team player)
Scientific thinking
Information literacy
Integrated learner
Are we teaching students these skills?
How do we help students “learn” these skills?
以學生學習為中心的教學
 教師的角色 - 教師如何教?
 學生的責任 -學生怎麼學?
 怎麼評量?
 我們怎麼協助教師?
何謂「以學生學習為中心的教學」?
被動學習
主動學習
Teacher-centered Learning
Student-centered Learning
Low level of student choice
High level of student choice
Student passive
Student active
Power is primarily with teacher
Power primarily with the student
 這兩者是可以同在一條教學方式的連續線上
(continuum)
 教師可以在不同的課程階段裡交互運用這兩種
教學方式
以學生學習為中心的「教學」是幫
助學生:
 能連結過去、現在與未來的知識
 參與自己的學習與評量
 為自己的學習負責
學習不能假手於他
Tell me, and I’ll listen.
Show me, and I’ll understand.
Involve me, and I’ll learn
--Lakota (Sioux)
學習理論
Students learn:
10% of what they read
20% of what they hear
30% of what they see and hear
70% of what they discuss with others
80% of what they experience personally
95% of what they teach to someone else
Nolan, 1996
內化的學習過程
Experiences
• Doing, observing
• Actual, simulated
• Rich learning
experiences
Information
and Ideas
• Primary/secondary
• Access them in-class,
out of class, online
Reflection
• What is learning and
how one is learning
• Alone and with
others
Adapted and modified from Dee Fink’s Teaching Improvement Model, 2003
以學生學習為中心的教學
(learner-centered teaching)
教師角色的改變
教師角色的改變
What is your role in student learning?
To teach?
To help students learn?
What is your primary pedagogy?
To cover necessary content?
To uncover learning?
以學生學習為中心的教學
Step 1- 從課程設計開始
Ask yourself:
What will your students be able to do, know, care about
by the end of the course/lesson/unit?
By the end of this modules:
you (the student) will be able to:
This course will cover:
Recognize the structures of the heart
The anatomy of the heart
Critique one of Yeats’ poems
A selection of Yeats poems
So…
以學生學習為中心的教學
Step 2
 了解學生學習此課程的背景(能力、動機)
- Give pre- survey, first day ungraded quiz
 提供學生此課程的GPS, e.g., 選修、必修,通識?
- Identify the course goals, context
 連結課程的相關性,學生的背景
- Provide connections of assignments,
activities, assessments and course goals
以學生學習為中心的教學
Step 3
Interactive Lecture
Step 3 (cont’d)
Don’t lecture
Know your students’ names
Teaching with questions
Various formats
Minute paper (timely feedback)
以學生學習為中心的教學
• “Cheat Sheets” for each new
lesson
• Students develop a small
group exercise, lab, or
simulation every week
• Small group discussions
• Pairing test
• Online discussion (blog, wiki)
• Team-Based Learning
以學生學習為中心的教學
Step 4
Authentic Project/
Assignment/Assessment
Authentic
Project/Assignment/Assessment

Focuses on what students should be able to DO
in the future

Focus on real-life context
 Has students imagine themselves in a situation
where people are actually using this knowledge
 Focuses on the integrated use of skills
「學生」學習方式的改變
Reflection (alone or with others)

What am I learning?

What do I need to do in order to learn that?

How am I doing? (What is my weakness and
strengths?)

Learning strategies (How do I learn better?)
評量」方式的改變
學生學習成效「
 多元化的評量
 多運用「評估表格」(rubric)、portfolio
 使用不定期(periodic) 的評量,給予學生及時的
(timely)、期中性(formative)的回饋
 學生自評及互評 (students involved in establishing
evaluation criteria
幫助學生學習
COPE
C onnection
連結
O pportunity
練習
P articipation
參與
E valuation
評估
幫助教師有效教學就是幫助
學生有效學習
 教師發展中心的角色
• elicit faculty buy-in, support, resources
 從個別的教師著手
 協助教師掌握基本的教學技巧
 多元化的評量教學成效
以學生學習為中心的教學設計
教師
學習成效
學生
評估
教學/教師
發展
教學環境
個案分享?
怎麼學?
怎麼評?
怎麼教?
怎麼幫助老師?
A teacher's purpose is not to create
students in his/her own image,
but to develop students who can
create their own image.
- Author Unknown
提升教師的教學品質
提升大學教育的品質
Questions?
Email: [email protected]
URL: www.umass.edu/ctfd
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