U.S. History Review Great Awakening A period of history that saw: An increase in religious tolerance An increase in religious practice An increase in ideas of equality The Declaration of Independence Said that people were endowed by their creator with certain unalienable rights. This means rights that cannot be taken away. It went on the say that if government tried to take rights away from people, the people could establish a new government. The Articles of Confederation First government of the United States Gave more power to the states instead of the national government. Did not give the government the power to tax. Shays’ Rebellion Rebellion caused by high taxes on farmers. Showed the need for a strong national government The Constitution The fundamental laws of the United States. Changes are called amendments Has a system of checks and balances so that one branch of government does not get too strong. First Amendment Protects the rights of freedom of speech, press, assembly, religion, and petition. Three-Fifths Compromise Counted slaves as three-fifths of a person for the purposes of taxation and representation Federalism The practice of sharing power between the states and federal government Jefferson vs. Hamilton The result of the dispute between Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton was the creation of political parties. Hamilton wanted the economy to be based on manufacturing. Jefferson wanted the economy to be based on agriculture. Hamilton represented the Federalist Party. Jefferson represented the DemocraticRepublican Party. Powers of Congress Declare war Create money Collect taxes Washington’s Farewell Address Washington warned against the creation of political parties and alliances with other nations. Judicial Review The power of the Supreme Court to overturn laws that they feel are unconstitutional James Fennimore Cooper Author of Last of the Mohicans Best remembered for his story of frontier life What does the process below show? Women’s Suffrage Movement The Women’s Suffrage Movement wanted women to have as many rights as men. What is the belief that said that the United States was meant to spread across the continent? Manifest destiny What was the main cause of the War of 1812? Impressment of American sailors What was the spoils system and who used it? In the spoils system, President Jackson appointed his political supporters to government jobs. What was the main purpose of the Lewis and Clark expedition? To explore the Louisiana Territory What did the Monroe Doctrine state? That the United States would not allow any European interference in the western hemisphere Which area on the map was gained by the U.S. in 1848 as a result of the MexicanAmerica War? Missouri Compromise The North and South had kept the balance of free and slave states. This was threatened when Missouri was going to join the Union as a slave state. To keep the balance, Maine was brought into the Union at the same time. The Missouri Compromise maintained the balance between slave and free states Compromise of 1850 In 1850, there was another problem with free and slave states. All of the territory won in the war with Mexico would become states soon. The issue was solved by allowing California into the Union as a free state, and having the territories of New Mexico, Nevada, Arizona, and Utah decide the issue of slavery themselves. California was admitted to the Union as a free state. The Dred Scott Case Dred Scott was a slave. His owner took him to a free state in the North. Scott sued for his freedom because he was in a free state. The case went all the way to the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court ruled that Dred Scott was a slave and therefore property, so he could not sue. The court also said that Congress could not ban slavery in the territories. Who was Frederick Douglass? A runaway slave An abolitionist Writer of an abolitionist newspaper called The North Star Who was Harriet Tubman? An abolitionist and leader of the Underground Railroad Who was William Lloyd Garrison? An abolitionist leader and editor of the influential abolitionist newspaper The Liberator What do Harriet Tubman, William Lloyd Garrison, and Frederick Douglass have in common? They were all abolitionists. How did Henry Clay’s American System try to improve the transportation system in the U.S.? By creating more canals and roads What right did women lose between 1777 and 1851? The cotton gin was invented in 1793. Look at the chart below. What was the long term effect of this invention? The Emancipation Proclamation The Emancipation Proclamation declared that slaves in the Confederate states would be free. Nullification The idea that states have the right to reject laws made by Congress is called nullification. 54th Massachusetts Regiment Made up one of the first AfricanAmerican regiments in the Civil War. Battle of Gettysburg Was the turning point of the war Confederate army never invaded the North again Lee lost nearly 1/3 of his army. 14th and 15th amendments The goal of the 14th and 15th amendments was to give rights to formerly enslaved persons Freedmen’s Bureau Helped resolve disputes between whites and blacks Set up schools for newly freed slaves Provided relief for those people displaced by the war. New technology in the Civil War deadlier cannons and bullets ironclad warships more accurate rifles Reconstruction The immediate goal of Reconstruction was to bring the Southern states back into the Union. The goal of the 14th and 15th amendments was to give rights to formerly enslaved persons. Reconstruction The Freedmen’s Bureau helped resolve conflicts between blacks and whites. They set up schools for newly freed slaves. Provided relief for those people hurt by the war. Poll taxes, literacy tests, and grandfather clauses were designed by Southern lawmakers prevent African-Americans from voting.