GERUND / INFINITIVE

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Ger
und
and
infini
tive
verb
phra
ses
When you have two verbs
together:
Some verbs are followed
by the INFINITIVE form
And some are followed by
the GERUND form
Like studying Economics
but
I would like to study
Engineering next year.
It is not always possible to
know which verbs are
followed by the gerund and
which by the infinitive,
often we have to simply try
to remember these
different verb structures.
GE
RU
ND
/
INF
INI
TIV
E
After to sell / selling to the retailers
the customers can buy the
products.
Selling/ to sell abroad usually takes
longer for the products to arrive.
It is easy to understand/
understanding
Stores offer discounts to increase/
increasing sales.
Neg
ative
form
:
Use
NOT

Gerund and infinitive
form the negative with
NOT
- It's important not to be
late for this meeting.
- I suggest not arriving
late for this meeting.
After
adje
ctive
s
Use the GERUND or
INFINITIVE ?
It is easy to understand/
understanding
He was surprised to see/
seeing how people responded
to his offer.
I was pleased to receive/
receiving your letter yesterday
Use the INFINITIVE:
He was surprised to see how
people responded to...
I was pleased to receive your
After letter yesterday
adje
ctive Some common adjectives are:
s
Glad – interesting – surprised –
disappointed – relieved – happy
– sad – curious – kind – difficult
- delighted
After
nou
ns
I've got some homework to
finish/finishing.
Use the GERUND or
INFINITIVE ?


This company has a couple
of jobs to offer/offering you.
After
nou
ns
This company has a couple
of jobs to offer you.
I've got some homework to
finish.
Use the INFINITIVE



We use the infinitive when
we want to say what we are
going to do with the noun
or how we are going to
use it.
Af
ter
ob
je
ct
s
When asking or telling another person
to do something:
Use Let/make/help: WITHOUT “TO”
Would like – prefer – instruct – order –
expect – allow – remind – encourage
-force – persuade – warn – beg
Common verbs used to tell/ask
people what to do:
-I would like you not to use the
telephone for personal calls.



- My boss makes us work very hard
- I don't let my secretary leave work
early
- My boss will help us finish the project
on time.
To
expr
ess
PUR
POS
E



To express the purpose, the
reason why you do
something.
What do you use? Infinitive
or gerund?
Make one sentence using
correct form:
-Simon is studying Economics.
He wants to help his father
in his business.
-Simon is studying Economics
to help his father in his
business.

Why is he studying? To help
…..
After
Prep
ositi
ons

Use the GERUND FORM or
INFINITIVE?
Eg: We succeeded in
persuading/ to persuade his
boss to give him a pay rise.
Eg: They appologised for not
arriving/to not arrive on time.
After
Prep
ositi
ons

Use the GERUND FORM
Eg: We succeeded in persuading
his boss to give him a pay rise.
Eg: They appologised for not
arriving on time.

Common Verb+preposition
combinations:
Apologise for / succeed in / look
forward to / be good at / be
interested in / insist on / have
difficulty in / be used to / get
used to / give up / find out by

Use the rerund after phrasal
verbs:
give up, go on, put off ... etc.
When
the
verb
is the
subje
ct of
a
sente
nce
Selling/ to sell abroad usually takes
longer for the products to arrive.
Smoking/to smoke is bad for you.
Advertising/ to advertise is getting
more and more difficult for marketers
Ger
und
after
cert
ain
verb
s:
Admit, suggest, attempt,
avoid, consider, delay,
finish, go, involve, keep,
mention, miss, postpone,
practise, propose,
recommend, report, risk,
dislike, enjoy, (don't) like,
(don't) mind, love, hate
= to express likes and
dislikes in general.
Infin
itive
after
cert
ain
verb
s
Afford, agree, decide,
expect, aim, help, hope,
arrange, need, learn,
decide, demand, fail,
intend, manage, offer,
plan, prepare, promise,
refuse, train, want, would
like.
Verbs + object
Advise, allow, ask, cause,
enable, expect, invite,
lead, permit, persuade,
remind, teach, tell, trust,
urge, use, warn
Either
forms
can be
used
with
the
followi
ng
verbs
without
changi
ng the
meani
ng:
Begin, start, continue, prefer
I prefer buying CDs on the
internet
I prefer to buy CDs on the
internet
I started teaching in 2001
I started to teach in 2001
The
mea
ning
chan
ges
a
little
...
= to express something
more specific

= to express something
in general
I like to study early in the
morning after a strong
coffee otherwise I don't
really enjoy studying.
I like studying
Economics.

gerund
and
infinitiv
e
forms
can be
used
after
these
verbs
BUT
they
have
differe
nt
meanin





NEED
FORGET
STOP
TRY
REMEMBER
Dif
fer
en
t
me
ani
ng
s
1) We stopped selling the old
designs.
What did we stop? Selling
(you stop doing the action)
2) We stopped to get a coffee.
Why did we stop? To get ....
(reason)
3) They tried to convince the students
to buy...
(= make an effort/attempt to do
something)
Try convincing the students it won't
be easy...
(experiment to see if something
works, a suggestion to solve a
problem)
4) I forgot to do it
(= did not remember)
I'll never forget seeing the Taj Mahal.
(= you did something and will always
remember)

Remember to send me that
email tonight.
(= don't forget)

I remember starting school
at primary school
(= I have this memory)

I need to go as soon as the
bell rings.
My car needs cleaning.
(this is a passive form)
(you need to do something –
you = subject)


( = My car needs to be
cleaned – car = object )









We need to be good at
innovating/innovate to retain customers.
They advised the company setting/to set
up an online auction
Can we meet in order speaking/to speak
about distribution?
It's essential investing/to invest in new
operations.
We can't risk ignoring/to ignore this share
tip.
Building/to build up long term
relationships isn't easy.
The product is so popular that it's difficult
meeting/to meet demand.
I've managed negotiating/to negotiate a
better deal.
I'll never forget seeing/to see the Grand
Canyon for the first time.









We need to be good at innovating to
retain customers.
They advised the company to set up
an online auction
Can we meet in order to speak about
distribution?
It's essential to invest in new
operations.
We can't risk ignoring this share tip.
Building up long term relationships isn't
easy.
The product is so popular that it's
difficult to meet demand.
I've managed to negotiate a better
deal.
I'll never forget seeing the Grand
Canyon for the first time.






My computer needs repairing/to
repair/ to be repaired
I ran home because I had forgotten
turning off/to turn off the oven.
Did you remember talking/to talk
to your boss about the problems in
your office today. Tomorrow he will
not be there.
I tried finishing/to finish on time in
order to please my boss.
Our boss persuaded Megan not
leaving/not to leave the company.
I was accused of not saying/ not
to say the truth in front of the judge.






KEY
My computer needs repairing/ to be
repaired
I ran home because I had forgotten to
turn off the oven.
Did you remember to talk to your
boss about the problems in your
office today. Tomorrow he will not be
there.
I tried to finish on time in order to
please my boss.
Our boss persuaded Megan not to
leave the company.
I was accused of not saying the truth
in front of the judge.
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