Citing Sources

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Fair Use and Citing Sources
Writing Consultant Presentation
EG 1003: Intro to Engineering and Design
NYU’s Polytechnic School of Engineering
Fair Use and Citing Sources
 What is fair use?
 Citation style that respects fair use
 Resources for more information
Creators get automatic rights
Profit from their words or images
Permit others to reproduce
their work
Create “derivative works”
(summaries, movies,
translations, etc.)
Perform or display in public
Rationale for “fair use”
 Without quoting (making a derivative) …
research and public conversation cease
 Criticism, review, commentary, parody, news
reports are important
to free society
 Some copyright
infringements are
worthwhile
What is “fair use”?
 Court defense against infringement
 No strict definition exists:
“There is no specific number of words, lines,
or notes that may safely be taken without
permission. Acknowledging the source of
the copyrighted material does not
substitute for obtaining permission”1
 Not itself a right
1
U.S. Copyright Office, “Fair Use,” retrieved 20 January 2011 from copyright.gov.
Conditions for fair use defense
1. In the context of
commentary, scholarly
report, review, or parody
2. Only a small portion of
entire text or picture
3. Cannot harm the
market for the work
4. Must indicate source
Fair Use and Citing Sources
 What is fair use?
 Citation style that respects fair use
 Resources for more information
Issues related to EG 1003
 Indicate when you use an idea outside your
own experience with quote marks or citation
 Take only brief passages and cite the source
so reader can verify original
 Use only a portion of pictures
in context of commentary
or review
 Exploit free clipart
or create your own
Author-date citation system
 Basis of many systems, including IEEE and APA
 Simple to implement:
• Author’s last name and year in text
• Full bibliographic information at end
 Use for all outside sources:
•
•
•
•
•
EG 1003 Lab Manual
Web pages
News reports
Dictionaries
Textbooks
Using a lead-in phrase
Original Text
A large number of production facilities in many
industries use processes in which heat is
transferred between different fluids. The basic
principle of heat transfer is extremely simple[;]
two fluids at different temperatures are placed
in contact with a conductive barrier (the tube
wall) and heat is transferred from the hotter
fluid to the colder fluid until they reach the
same temperature level. In industrial processes
this is carried out in heat exchangers of various
types and styles usually purpose built for the
process and site conditions of the application.
HRS Heat Exchangers. 2014. “Heat Transfer
Fundamentals.” hrs-heatexchangers.com.
Quote
According to HRS Heat
Exchangers (2014), a “large
number” of industrial processes use
heat transfer. Heat exchangers are
“purpose built for the process and
site conditions of the application.”
Paraphrase
According to HRS Heat Exchangers
(2014), many industries use simple
heat transfer processes where a
barrier between fluids conducts
heat until equilibrium is reached.
Using a parenthetical citation
Original Text
A large number of production facilities in many
industries use processes in which heat is
transferred between different fluids. The basic
principle of heat transfer is extremely simple[;]
two fluids at different temperatures are placed
in contact with a conductive barrier (the tube
wall) and heat is transferred from the hotter
fluid to the colder fluid until they reach the
same temperature level. In industrial processes
this is carried out in heat exchangers of various
types and styles usually purpose built for the
process and site conditions of the application.
HRS Heat Exchangers. 2014. “Heat Transfer
Fundamentals.” hrs-heatexchangers.com.
Quote
A “large number” of industrial
processes use heat transfer. Heat
exchangers are “purpose built for
the process and site conditions of
the application” (HRS Heat
Exchangers 2014).
Paraphrase
Many industries use simple heat
transfer processes where a barrier
between fluids conducts heat until
equilibrium is reached (HRS Heat
Exchangers 2014).
Works cited section for end of report
Works Cited
Anderson, Nick. 26 January 2011. “U.S. Students Falling Short in
Science.” Washington Post. Accessed 27 January 2011
from washingtonpost.com.
HRS Heat Exchangers. 2014. “Heat Transfer Fundamentals,”
Accessed 24 August 2014 from hrs-heatexchangers.com.
Polytechnic Institute of NYU. 2014. “Lab 11: Heat Transfer and
Thermal Insulation.” EG 1003 Online Lab Manual. Accessed
24 August 2014 from manual.eg.poly.edu.
Welty, James R. 2008. Fundamentals of Momentum, Heat,
and Mass Transfer. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Works cited section for end of report
Alphabetic by
last name
Year of publication
(date when possible)
Anderson, Nick. 26 January 2011. “U.S. Students Falling Short in
Science.” Washington Post. Accessed 27 January 2011
from washingtonpost.com.
Web articles: access
date but not full URL
HRS Heat Exchangers. 2014. “Heat Transfer Fundamentals,”
Accessed 24 August 2014 from hrs-heatexchangers.com.
Polytechnic Institute of NYU. 2011. “Lab 11: Heat Transfer and
Thermal Insulation.” EG 1003 Online Lab Manual. Accessed
24 August 2014 from manual.eg.poly.edu.
Welty, James R. 2008. Fundamentals of Momentum, Heat,
and Mass Transfer. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Portion of longer
work; has
corporate author
Books include city
and publisher
Cite sources twice in reports
① In-text citation:
 Whenever outside ideas come into a report
 Use both with quotes and your own words
② Works Cited section:
 List of all sources
 Separate section at end of report
 Enough information to check the original
Slides are a different animal
 Audience cannot turn to end of report
 Best practice is to have handout with sources
 Without handout, include both in-text citations and
works cited info on the slide
 According to Nick Anderson, almost two-thirds of U.S.
students cannot explain heat transfer1
1
Anderson, Nick. 26 January 2011. “U.S. Students Falling Short in Science.” Washington Post.
Accessed 27 January 2011 from washingtonpost.com.
Fair Use and Citing Sources
 What is fair use?
 Citation style that respects fair use
 Resources for more information
More information on author-date
 Chicago Manual of Style Online
“Citation Quick Guide”
http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html
 Purdue Online Writing Lab
“Chicago Manual of Style 16th Edition”
http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/717/01/
 NYU-Poly Writing Center
(718) 260-3425
[email protected]
Other documentation systems
Style
name
Disciplines
Quick guide
CSE
Biology, chemistry, physics
http://bcs.bedfordstmartins.com/resd
oc5e/RES5e_ch11_s1-0002.html
IEEE
EE, CS
http://www.ieee.org/documents/style
manual.pdf
APA
Social Sciences
http://www.apastyle.org
Fair Use and Citing Sources
 What is fair use?
 Citation style that respects fair use
 Resources for more information
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