The Continuity and Change Over Time (CCOT) Essay

The Continuity and
Change Over Time
(CCOT) Essay
About the CCOT
• The CCOT essay looks at how something is similar
or different than something else. In the CCOT
essay, the similarity is how something did not
change and the differences are the changes. The
important element is WHY things did or did not
About the CCOT
• The most important elements of the CCOT essay
are that the student must show what has changed
and what has remained continuous throughout
those changes from the beginning to the end of the
time period given. The continuities must be
substantial, not obvious (Mexicans remained
Mexicans), nor can change be continuous.
About the CCOT
• Primary purpose of CCOT is to test students’
mastery of their historical thinking skills
(argumentation, causation, contextualization,
• Time allotted for this essay is 40 minutes (5-10 of
which should be spent planning/outlining).
CCOT Prompts
2002 CCOT
• Choose TWO of the areas listed below and analyze how
each area’s relationship to global trade patterns changed
from 1750 to the present. Be sure to describe each area’s
involvement in global patterns around 1750 as your starting
Latin America
East Asia
Eastern Europe
North America
South/South East Asia
Sub-Saharan Africa
Middle East
2003 CCOT
• Describe and analyze the cultural,
economic, and political impact of Islam on
ONE of the following regions between 1000
CE and 1750 CE. Be sure to discuss
continuities as well as changes.
• West Africa
• South Asia
• Europe
2004 CCOT
• Analyze the changes and continuities in labor
systems between 1750 and 1914 in ONE of the
following areas. In your analysis, be sure to
discuss the causes of the changes and the
reasons for the continuities.
• Latin America and the Caribbean
• Russia
• Sub-Saharan Africa
2005 CCOT
• Analyze the social and economic
transformations that occurred in the
Atlantic world as a result of new
contacts among Western Europe,
Africa, and the Americas from 1492 to
2006 CCOT
• Analyze the cultural and political changes
and continuities in ONE of the following
civilizations during the last centuries of the
classical era.
• Chinese (100-600 CE)
• Roman (100-600 CE)
• Indian (300-600 CE)
2007 CCOT
• Analyze major changes and continuities in
the formation of national identities in ONE of
the regions listed below from 1914 to the
present. Be sure to include evidence from
specific countries in the region selected.
• Middle East
• Southeast Asia
• Sub-Saharan Africa
2008 CCOT
• Analyze the changes and continuities in
commerce in the Indian Ocean region from
650 CE – 1750 CE.
2009 CCOT
• Analyze the continuities and changes in
patterns of interactions along the Silk Roads
from 200 BCE to 1450 CE.
2010 CCOT
• Describe and explain continuities and
changes in religious beliefs and practices in
ONE of the following regions from 1450 to
the present.
• Sub-Saharan Africa
• Latin America/Caribbean
2011 CCOT
• Analyze changes and continuities in longdistance migrations in the period from 1700
to 1900. Be sure to include specific
examples from at least TWO different world
2012 CCOT
• Analyze continuities and changes in trade
networks between Africa and Eurasia from
circa 300 CE to 1450 CE.
Basic Core (0-7 Points)
Expanded Core (0-2 Points)
1) Has Acceptable Thesis (1 Point)
Analyzes both change and continuity,
and provides even and ample evidence
of change and continuity
2) Addresses all parts of the question,
though not necessarily evenly or
thoroughly (2 Points if both Con and Ch,
1 Point if either Con or Ch)
Has a clear, analytical and
comprehensive thesis
3) Substantiates thesis with appropriate
historical evidence (2 Points, or 1 Point)
Discussion of global context addresses
both broad world historical patterns and
specific global historical developments
4) Uses relevant world historical context
effectively to explain change over time
and/or continuity (1 Point)
Sophisticated analysis of the entire time
5) Analyzes the process of change over
time and/or continuity (1 Point, examines
specific causes)
The Thesis
• Because the central task in the question calls for analysis
of continuity and change, acceptable thesis statements
need to address both, stating as least one continuity and
one change.
• Thesis statements also need to be explicit, not simply
restatements of the question or vague statements, such as
“there were more changes than continuities.”
Thesis, cont.
• Thesis Musts
• Address Prompt
• Place/Time
• 3 Categories
• 1:2 Ratio (1 or 2 Continuities / 1 or 2 Changes)
Thesis, cont.
• “From this date to that date, X changed in A, yet remained
the same in B and C.”
• “From this date to that date, X remained the same in A, yet
changed in B and C.”
• “Even though A changed in this place at this time, B and C
continued to happen.”
• “Even though A remained the same in this place at this
time, B and C changed.”
2012: Analyze continuities and changes in trade networks
between Africa and Eurasia from circa 300 CE to 1450 CE.
From 300 CE to 1450 CE, trade relations between Africa
and Eurasia showed consistency in the basic types of
exports and imports as well as the importance of coastal
cities, but also showed changes in the arrival of Islam, the
extent and degree of trade, and the rise of new and
powerful empires in Eurasia.
The Order
• Introduction – Thesis and Definitions
• Section 1 – Category 1 (how it
changed/continued from beginning to end)
• Section 2 – Category 2 (how it
changed/continued from beginning to end)
• Section 3 – Category 3 (how it
changed/continued from beginning to end)
• Conclusion
What Order?
In case time is not to your advantage, always
organize your essay according to the top row.
What Good Responses Should Include
• Provides analysis of valid continuities and
• Moves beyond a mechanistic “beginning,
middle, end” format
• Provides solid chronological knowledge
across the entire time period
What Good Responses Should Include, cont.
• Include dates to demonstrate the ability to
describe with some precision when
continuity and change happen
• Describe an extra-regional connection or a
global process to explain continuity or
2006 CCOT
Marking it up
Friday – 2006 CCOT due
Write it at home and annotate the following parts
1) Thesis – bold
2) Categories– underline
3) World History Context (Evidence) - italicize