The Continuity and Change Over Time (CCOT) Essay About the CCOT • Tests students’ historical thinking skills (argumentation, causation, contextualization, synthesis). • The student must show what has changed and what has remained continuous from the beginning to the end of the time period given. • The important element is WHY things did or did not change. • Time allotted for this essay is 40 minutes (5-10 of which should be spent planning/outlining). • If possible, ALWAYS pick the nonwestern regions. CCOT Prompts 2002-2014 Find the Phrase 2002 CCOT • Choose TWO of the areas listed below and analyze how each area’s relationship to global trade patterns changed from 1750 to the present. Be sure to describe each area’s involvement in global patterns around 1750 as your starting point. • • • • • • • Latin America East Asia Eastern Europe North America South/South East Asia Sub-Saharan Africa Middle East 2003 CCOT • Describe and analyze the cultural, economic, and political impact of Islam on ONE of the following regions between 1000 CE and 1750 CE. Be sure to discuss continuities as well as changes. • West Africa • South Asia • Europe 2004 CCOT • Analyze the changes and continuities in labor systems between 1750 and 1914 in ONE of the following areas. In your analysis, be sure to discuss the causes of the changes and the reasons for the continuities. • Latin America and the Caribbean • Russia • Sub-Saharan Africa 2005 CCOT • Analyze the social and economic transformations that occurred in the Atlantic world as a result of new contacts among Western Europe, Africa, and the Americas from 1492 to 1750. 2006 CCOT • Analyze the cultural and political changes and continuities in ONE of the following civilizations during the last centuries of the classical era. • Chinese (100-600 CE) • Roman (100-600 CE) • Indian (300-600 CE) 2007 CCOT • Analyze major changes and continuities in the formation of national identities in ONE of the regions listed below from 1914 to the present. Be sure to include evidence from specific countries in the region selected. • Middle East • Southeast Asia • Sub-Saharan Africa 2008 CCOT • Analyze the changes and continuities in commerce in the Indian Ocean region from 650 CE – 1750 CE. 2009 CCOT • Analyze the continuities and changes in patterns of interactions along the Silk Roads from 200 BCE to 1450 CE. 2010 CCOT • Describe and explain continuities and changes in religious beliefs and practices in ONE of the following regions from 1450 to the present. • Sub-Saharan Africa • Latin America/Caribbean 2011 CCOT • Analyze changes and continuities in longdistance migrations in the period from 1700 to 1900. Be sure to include specific examples from at least TWO different world regions. 2012 CCOT • Analyze continuities and changes in trade networks between Africa and Eurasia from circa 300 CE to 1450 CE. 2013 CCOT • Analyze how political transformations contributed to continuities and changes in the cultures of the Mediterranean region during the period circa 200 CE to 1000 CE. 2014 CCOT • Analyze continuities and changes in the ways ONE of the following regions participated in interregional trade during the period 1500-1750. • Latin America/Caribbean • Sub-Saharan Africa • Southeast Asia Thesis • Acceptable thesis statements need to address both change and continuity, with at least one of each. • Need to be explicit, not restatements of the prompt or vague statements, such as “there were more changes than continuities.” • Thesis Musts • Address Prompt • Place/Time • 3 Categories/Groups • 1 Continuity and 2 Changes / 2 Continuities and 1 Change How to Construct the Thesis • “From (this date) to (that date), (X) showed changes in (A), yet showed consistency in (B) and (C).” • “From (this date) to (that date), (X) showed consistency in (A), but showed changes in (B) and (C).” • “Even though (A) showed changes in (this place) at (this time), (B) and (C) continued to happen.” • “Even though (A) remained the same in (this place) at (this time), (B) and (C) changed.” Sample Thesis 2012: Analyze continuities and changes in trade networks between Africa and Eurasia from circa 300 CE to 1450 CE. “From (this date) to (that date), (X) showed consistency in (A), but showed changes in (B) and (C).” From 300 CE to 1450 CE, trade relations between Africa and Eurasia showed consistency in the basic types of exports and imports as well as the importance of coastal cities, but also showed changes in the arrival of Islam, the extent and degree of trade, and the rise of new and powerful empires in Eurasia. The Order • Introduction – Thesis Sentence • Paragraph 1 – Group 1 (how it changed/continued from beginning to end) • Paragraph 2 – Group 2 (how it changed/continued from beginning to end) • Paragraph 3 – Group 3 (how it changed/continued from beginning to end) • Conclusion (if time) What Order? Continuity Change Continuity Change Continuity Continuity Continuity Continuity Change Change Change Continuity Continuity Change Change If time is not to your advantage, always organize your essay according to the top row. Tips for a CCOT • The continuities must be substantial, not obvious (Germans remained Germans), nor can change be continuous. • Provide solid chronological knowledge across the entire time period • Include dates to demonstrate the ability to describe with some precision when continuity and change happen • Use the phrase throughout your paper! AP Rubric & Class Expectations World Historical Context • Provide the surrounding historical events so that the reader understands what is occurring at the time of the changes/continuities. OR • Describes extra-regional connections to explain a continuity OR change in response to the prompt. World Historical Context • Good example: “From 200 BCE to 400 CE, the stability in major empires such as the Romans in Europe, Guptas in India, Hans in China, allowed the Silk Roads to prosper, until disease and nomadic invasions disrupted this peace and the Silk Roads fell into disuse.” • Poor example: “Over a period of time, Silk Roads were responsible for bringing different cultures into contact” • NOT acceptable because it lacks specificity. Analyzing Change or Continuity • Must analyze the reasons for a continuity or change • Why does this particular thing change? What causes that change, and why does that change occur right then and not at some other time? • Why does this particular thing stay the same? Did something prevent change, or is consistency with this thing desired? Analyzing Change or Continuity • If your Change is “Buddhism declined in India,” how would you explain WHY? • Example: “Buddhism’s popularity declined in India during the Classical period as a result of many factors. First, the Guptas promoted Hinduism in a period directly after Buddhist Kushan rule where Buddhism had come to be associated with foreignness. Secondly, Buddhism rejects the idea of the caste system, a social structure which was deeply engrained into Indian society as a result of Aryan and Hindu influence.” 2006 CCOT Rubric Write an essay that: • Has a relevant thesis (1) and supports that thesis with appropriate historical evidence (2). • Addresses all parts (2) of the question. • Uses world historical context (1) to show change over time and/or continuities. • Analyzes (1) the process of change over time and/or continuity. 2006 CCOT “Analyze the cultural and political changes and continuities in ONE of the following civilizations during the last centuries of the classical era.” Chinese, 100 CE – 600 CE Indian, 300 CE – 600 CE 2006 CCOT Brainstorm: India, 300 CE - 600 CE Changes • Gupta Empire (320-550 CE) using regional divisions, stable and prosperous initially • Collapse: invasions of White Huns, 5th-6th c.; regional kingdoms split from empire • Golden Age: Gupta emperors supported Hinduism, math and science • Gradual decline of Buddhism in India, spread beyond India into Southeast Asia • Because of Buddhism and trade, India’s influence extends to SE Asia Continuities • • • • Continued patriarchy Continued strength of Hinduism Continued trade by land and sea Continued caste system 2006 CCOT Brainstorm: China, 100 CE - 600 CE Changes Continuities • Han Empire, 206 BCE-220 CEcentralization, bureaucracy • Fell due to internal problems (disagreements at court, corruption) • Fell due to external problems (conflicts with Hun invasions) • 220-589: 3 Kingdoms Period, regional kingdoms, warlords, disorder • 589-618-Sui dynasty • Buddhism slowly becomes more popular, coming in on Silk Road • Continued Daoism • Confucianism continued • Continued patriarchy, filial piety, veneration of ancestors • Continued examination system • Continued expansion of Great wall Tuesday, September 2nd – 2006 CCOT due Type the essay, double-space it, and annotate the following parts: 1) Thesis – bold 2) Topic Sentences with Categories/Groups – underline 3) Pieces of Evidence - italicize 4) World History Context – different font 5) Analysis – larger size Do NOT do extra research (Wikipedia, etc) for this essay. Utilize your textbook, notes, and prepbook.