The Continuity and Change Over Time (CCOT)

The Continuity and
Change Over Time
(CCOT) Essay
About the CCOT
• Tests students’ historical thinking skills (argumentation,
causation, contextualization, synthesis).
• The student must show what has changed and what
has remained continuous from the beginning to the
end of the time period given.
• The important element is WHY things did or did not
• Time allotted for this essay is 40 minutes (5-10 of
which should be spent planning/outlining).
• If possible, ALWAYS pick the nonwestern regions.
CCOT Prompts
Find the Phrase
2002 CCOT
• Choose TWO of the areas listed below and analyze how
each area’s relationship to global trade patterns changed
from 1750 to the present. Be sure to describe each area’s
involvement in global patterns around 1750 as your starting
Latin America
East Asia
Eastern Europe
North America
South/South East Asia
Sub-Saharan Africa
Middle East
2003 CCOT
• Describe and analyze the cultural,
economic, and political impact of Islam on
ONE of the following regions between 1000
CE and 1750 CE. Be sure to discuss
continuities as well as changes.
• West Africa
• South Asia
• Europe
2004 CCOT
• Analyze the changes and continuities in labor
systems between 1750 and 1914 in ONE of the
following areas. In your analysis, be sure to
discuss the causes of the changes and the
reasons for the continuities.
• Latin America and the Caribbean
• Russia
• Sub-Saharan Africa
2005 CCOT
• Analyze the social and economic
transformations that occurred in the
Atlantic world as a result of new
contacts among Western Europe,
Africa, and the Americas from 1492 to
2006 CCOT
• Analyze the cultural and political changes
and continuities in ONE of the following
civilizations during the last centuries of the
classical era.
• Chinese (100-600 CE)
• Roman (100-600 CE)
• Indian (300-600 CE)
2007 CCOT
• Analyze major changes and continuities in
the formation of national identities in ONE of
the regions listed below from 1914 to the
present. Be sure to include evidence from
specific countries in the region selected.
• Middle East
• Southeast Asia
• Sub-Saharan Africa
2008 CCOT
• Analyze the changes and continuities in
commerce in the Indian Ocean region from
650 CE – 1750 CE.
2009 CCOT
• Analyze the continuities and changes in
patterns of interactions along the Silk Roads
from 200 BCE to 1450 CE.
2010 CCOT
• Describe and explain continuities and
changes in religious beliefs and practices in
ONE of the following regions from 1450 to
the present.
• Sub-Saharan Africa
• Latin America/Caribbean
2011 CCOT
• Analyze changes and continuities in longdistance migrations in the period from 1700
to 1900. Be sure to include specific
examples from at least TWO different world
2012 CCOT
• Analyze continuities and changes in trade
networks between Africa and Eurasia from
circa 300 CE to 1450 CE.
2013 CCOT
• Analyze how political transformations
contributed to continuities and changes in
the cultures of the Mediterranean region
during the period circa 200 CE to 1000 CE.
2014 CCOT
• Analyze continuities and changes in the
ways ONE of the following regions
participated in interregional trade during the
period 1500-1750.
• Latin America/Caribbean
• Sub-Saharan Africa
• Southeast Asia
• Acceptable thesis statements need to address both change
and continuity, with at least one of each.
• Need to be explicit, not restatements of the prompt or
vague statements, such as “there were more changes than
• Thesis Musts
• Address Prompt
• Place/Time
• 3 Categories/Groups
• 1 Continuity and 2 Changes / 2 Continuities and 1
How to Construct the Thesis
• “From (this date) to (that date), (X) showed changes in (A),
yet showed consistency in (B) and (C).”
• “From (this date) to (that date), (X) showed consistency in
(A), but showed changes in (B) and (C).”
• “Even though (A) showed changes in (this place) at (this
time), (B) and (C) continued to happen.”
• “Even though (A) remained the same in (this place) at (this
time), (B) and (C) changed.”
Sample Thesis
2012: Analyze continuities and changes in trade networks
between Africa and Eurasia from circa 300 CE to 1450 CE.
“From (this date) to (that date), (X) showed consistency in
(A), but showed changes in (B) and (C).”
From 300 CE to 1450 CE, trade relations between Africa
and Eurasia showed consistency in the basic types of
exports and imports as well as the importance of coastal
cities, but also showed changes in the arrival of Islam, the
extent and degree of trade, and the rise of new and
powerful empires in Eurasia.
The Order
• Introduction – Thesis Sentence
• Paragraph 1 – Group 1 (how it
changed/continued from beginning to end)
• Paragraph 2 – Group 2 (how it
changed/continued from beginning to end)
• Paragraph 3 – Group 3 (how it
changed/continued from beginning to end)
• Conclusion (if time)
What Order?
If time is not to your advantage, always organize
your essay according to the top row.
Tips for a CCOT
• The continuities must be substantial, not
obvious (Germans remained Germans),
nor can change be continuous.
• Provide solid chronological knowledge
across the entire time period
• Include dates to demonstrate the ability to
describe with some precision when
continuity and change happen
• Use the phrase throughout your paper!
AP Rubric
Class Expectations
World Historical Context
Provide the surrounding historical events so that the
reader understands what is occurring at the time of
the changes/continuities.
Describes extra-regional connections to explain a
continuity OR change in response to the prompt.
World Historical Context
Good example: “From 200 BCE to 400 CE, the
stability in major empires such as the Romans in
Europe, Guptas in India, Hans in China, allowed the
Silk Roads to prosper, until disease and nomadic
invasions disrupted this peace and the Silk Roads fell
into disuse.”
Poor example: “Over a period of time, Silk Roads
were responsible for bringing different cultures into
• NOT acceptable because it lacks specificity.
Analyzing Change or Continuity
Must analyze the reasons for a continuity or change
Why does this particular thing change? What
causes that change, and why does that change
occur right then and not at some other time?
Why does this particular thing stay the same? Did
something prevent change, or is consistency with
this thing desired?
Analyzing Change or Continuity
If your Change is “Buddhism declined in India,” how
would you explain WHY?
Example: “Buddhism’s popularity declined in India
during the Classical period as a result of many
factors. First, the Guptas promoted Hinduism in a
period directly after Buddhist Kushan rule where
Buddhism had come to be associated with
foreignness. Secondly, Buddhism rejects the idea of
the caste system, a social structure which was deeply
engrained into Indian society as a result of Aryan and
Hindu influence.”
2006 CCOT
Write an essay that:
• Has a relevant thesis (1) and supports that
thesis with appropriate historical evidence
• Addresses all parts (2) of the question.
• Uses world historical context (1) to show
change over time and/or continuities.
• Analyzes (1) the process of change over
time and/or continuity.
2006 CCOT
“Analyze the cultural and political changes and
continuities in ONE of the following civilizations
during the last centuries of the classical era.”
Chinese, 100 CE – 600 CE
Indian, 300 CE – 600 CE
2006 CCOT
Brainstorm: India, 300 CE - 600 CE
• Gupta Empire (320-550 CE) using
regional divisions, stable and
prosperous initially
• Collapse: invasions of White Huns,
5th-6th c.; regional kingdoms split
from empire
• Golden Age: Gupta emperors
supported Hinduism, math and
• Gradual decline of Buddhism in
India, spread beyond India into
Southeast Asia
• Because of Buddhism and trade,
India’s influence extends to SE Asia
Continued patriarchy
Continued strength of Hinduism
Continued trade by land and sea
Continued caste system
2006 CCOT
Brainstorm: China, 100 CE - 600 CE
• Han Empire, 206 BCE-220 CEcentralization, bureaucracy
• Fell due to internal problems
(disagreements at court, corruption)
• Fell due to external problems
(conflicts with Hun invasions)
• 220-589: 3 Kingdoms Period,
regional kingdoms, warlords,
• 589-618-Sui dynasty
• Buddhism slowly becomes more
popular, coming in on Silk Road
• Continued Daoism
• Confucianism continued
• Continued patriarchy, filial piety,
veneration of ancestors
• Continued examination system
• Continued expansion of Great
Tuesday, September 2nd – 2006 CCOT due
Type the essay, double-space it, and annotate the
following parts:
1) Thesis – bold
2) Topic Sentences with Categories/Groups –
3) Pieces of Evidence - italicize
4) World History Context – different font
5) Analysis – larger
Do NOT do extra research (Wikipedia, etc) for
this essay. Utilize your textbook, notes, and