The Road to Independence 1763-1767 Treaty of Paris February 2, 1763, Treaty of Paris ending The French and Indian War is signed. Great Britain gains control of all of France’s land in North America. British Problems • How to deal with new land? • How to govern it? • How to protect it? • How to pay the huge war debt? Proclamation of 1763 Brought on by Pontiac’s War, the proclamation prohibited any new settlers from moving west of the Appalachian Mountains. To protect against Indian attacks, 10,000 soldiers would be stationed in America. Paying the War Debt The job of paying the war debt fell to George Grenville. He believed that America must pay. He imposed a tax on sugar, a common practice in England, on the colonies. Became known as The Sugar Act. Place a small import tax on sugar and molasses, essential ingredients in the distilling industry. The Currency Act All taxes must now be paid with gold or silver coin. Quartering Act Meant that the colonists were responsible for providing barracks for the soldiers stationed in America. Indirect Tax A tax that is hidden in the cost of a good. Direct Tax A tax that is added to the cost of a good. Stamp Act March 22, 1765 The Stamp Act placed a direct tax on printed items of all kinds: newspapers, college diplomas, licenses, playing cards, legal documents. Proof tax was paid was a stamp placed on the document. Colonial Reaction to Stamp Act Since this was the first time a direct tax was placed on the colonists, reaction grew rapidly throughout the colonies. Leaders began to emerge such as Patrick Henry from Virginia. Samuel Adams In Boston, Samuel Adams forms a political action group called “The Sons of Liberty”. Stamp Act Congress In October, 1765, delegates from nine colonies meet in New York. Merchants agree not to import any British goods. Trade comes to a standstill. William Pitt: “I rejoice that America has resisted”. Grenville Resigns The boycott of British goods by Americans caused a downturn in the economy. Parliament blames Grenville. He resigns in July of 1765. Stamp Act Repealed March 4, 1766, Stamp Act is repealed. Declaratory Act March 18, 1766: Parliament has the full authority to make the laws to bind the colonies and the people of America…in all cases whatsoever.” Charles Townshend In 1766, Charles Townshend becomes Prime Minister. England still had a huge war debt. He knew colonists would resist direct taxes. He tried indirect taxes. Series of Acts were passed beginning June 29, 1767. Townshend Acts • Levied import tax on tea, lead, glass. • Writs of Assistance: Special search warrants which tax collectors could search ships, businesses, homes. • Money raised would be used to pay British officials in America. Colonial Reaction to Townshend Acts By now colonists were opposed to any taxes levied by Parliament. Boycotts effective during the Stamp Act returned. Daughters of Liberty Women organized to support the boycotts. They urged Americans to produce the goods they needed. This would boost the economy.