The Road to Independence

The Road to Independence
Treaty of Paris
February 2, 1763, Treaty of Paris ending The French and Indian
War is signed. Great Britain gains control of all of France’s land
in North America.
British Problems
• How to deal with new
• How to govern it?
• How to protect it?
• How to pay the huge
war debt?
Proclamation of 1763
Brought on by Pontiac’s War, the
proclamation prohibited any new
settlers from moving west of the
Appalachian Mountains. To
protect against Indian attacks,
10,000 soldiers would be
stationed in America.
Paying the War Debt
The job of paying the war debt
fell to George Grenville. He
believed that America must
pay. He imposed a tax on
sugar, a common practice in
England, on the colonies.
Became known as The Sugar
Act. Place a small import tax
on sugar and molasses,
essential ingredients in the
distilling industry.
The Currency Act
All taxes must now be
paid with gold or
silver coin.
Quartering Act
Meant that the colonists were responsible for providing barracks
for the soldiers stationed in America.
Indirect Tax
A tax that is
hidden in the cost
of a good.
Direct Tax
A tax that is added to the cost of a good.
Stamp Act
March 22, 1765
The Stamp Act placed
a direct tax on printed
items of all kinds:
newspapers, college
diplomas, licenses,
playing cards, legal
documents. Proof tax
was paid was a stamp
placed on the
Colonial Reaction to Stamp Act
Since this was the first
time a direct tax was
placed on the colonists,
reaction grew rapidly
throughout the colonies.
Leaders began to emerge
such as Patrick Henry
from Virginia.
Samuel Adams
In Boston, Samuel Adams
forms a political action group
called “The Sons of
Stamp Act Congress
In October, 1765,
delegates from nine
colonies meet in New York.
Merchants agree not to
import any British goods.
Trade comes to a standstill.
William Pitt: “I rejoice that
America has resisted”.
Grenville Resigns
The boycott of British goods by
Americans caused a downturn in
the economy. Parliament
blames Grenville. He resigns in
July of 1765.
Stamp Act Repealed
March 4, 1766, Stamp Act is repealed.
Declaratory Act
March 18, 1766: Parliament
has the full authority to make
the laws to bind the colonies
and the people of America…in
all cases whatsoever.”
Charles Townshend
In 1766, Charles Townshend
becomes Prime Minister.
England still had a huge war
debt. He knew colonists
would resist direct taxes. He
tried indirect taxes. Series of
Acts were passed beginning
June 29, 1767.
Townshend Acts
• Levied import tax on
tea, lead, glass.
• Writs of Assistance:
Special search warrants
which tax collectors
could search ships,
businesses, homes.
• Money raised would be
used to pay British
officials in America.
Colonial Reaction to
Townshend Acts
By now colonists were opposed to any taxes levied by
Parliament. Boycotts effective during the Stamp Act returned.
Daughters of Liberty
Women organized to
support the boycotts.
They urged Americans
to produce the goods
they needed. This
would boost the