DO NOW (3 min.) In what ways do students struggle with argumentative thinking, planning, and writing? Objectives 0 TWBAT identify and explain the components of a Toulmin essay 0 TWBAT create exemplar models in the Toulmin style 0 TWBAT score sample essays in accordance with the Toulmin Rubric What is Toulmin? 0 Toulmin Model: a method of developing, organizing, and supporting an argument 0 Developed by Stephen Toulmin, a British logician and philosopher 0 Primary Vocabulary for the Toulmin Model 0 0 0 0 0 Claim (& Clarification) Premise Evidence Warrant Objection & Reply Structure of the Toulmin Model Claim Premise Premise Objection Evidence Evidence Reply Warrant Warrant The Claim 0 Definition: The position or claim being argued for; the conclusion of the argument (comparable to a thesis statement). 0 Three Basic Types of Claims: 0 Fact*: Claims that argue about a definition or whether something is a settled fact 0 Judgment/Value: Claims involving opinions, attitudes, and subjective evaluations of things 0 Policy: Claims advocating courses of action that should be undertaken Sample Claims Fact*: The death penalty as used in the United States has not been an effective deterrent of crime. Judgment/Value: The use of civil disobedience during the Civil Rights struggle was an effective and necessary means of swaying public opinion. Position: The private ownership of automatic and semiautomatic weapons in the United States should be banned. Claim vs. Topic Rate the following claims on a scale of 3, 2, or 1 (3 being an exemplar). 1) Bullying happens in schools. 2) School uniforms improve student learning. 3) Our city should build a children’s museum on the east side to raise interest in science and art. 4) The effects of UVB on skin have been researched extensively. The Clarification • Definition: A more specific explanation of the claim that could do the following: – Includes a transition (To clarify, In other words, More specifically) – Explains the shady terms in the claim – Provides a reason(s) for the legitimacy of the claim Example: Claim: In order to eliminate excessive waste at Tindley, we should organize an “Eco-Friendly Council.” Clarification: By council, I mean a group of scholars who would promote eco-friendliness in the school through class challenges and recycling initiatives. Creating Examples with an Exemplar 1. Sit with your co-planner or grade level team. 2. Pull up your first Summative Essay Prompt. 3. On the handout, create sample claims and clarifications appropriate to each score in the Toulmin rubric. Example: 9th Grade Unit 1 Summative Essay Prompt Pick one of the Puritan values. Argue whether that belief still exists in some form in our society today, and whether you think it’s appropriate for our times. Your evidence should come from our Puritan texts and your own knowledge of laws/practices in our schools, churches, businesses, etc. today. Structure of the Toulmin Model Claim Premise Premise Objection Evidence Evidence Reply Warrant Warrant The Premise 0 Definition: sub-point of the main argument; a reason to support the claim (comparable to a topic sentence) 0 Claim: Our school should add a computer technology class. 0 Premise 1: Having a computer technology class would prepare students for future employment. 0 Premise 2: Many students are very skilled on computers; having this class would help them explore their strengths and interests. 0 [*More premises may be necessary depending on the depth of the claim and the nature of the assignment.] Identifying the Claim and Premises In the following clip, character Phil Dunphy from Modern Family (humorously) makes a claim and supports it with a series of premises. Watch the following clip and identify: 0 The Claim 0 3 Premises Modern Family’s Phil Dunphy: Cool Dad Creating Examples with an Exemplar 0 On the handout, create sample premises appropriate to each score in the Toulmin Rubric. Structure of the Toulmin Model Claim Premise Premise Objection Evidence Evidence Reply Warrant Warrant The Evidence 0 Definition: the “proof” for the premise (must be observable and/or measurable). * Each premise requires its own evidence. 0 Evidence must also be reliable and/or reasonable. 0 In a research paper, it must be cited or widely accepted as fact (as in a researched class assignment). 0 In an on-demand essay, it should be provable and reasonable (as in an Interim Essay). The Evidence 0 Claim: Our school should add a computer technology class. 0 Premise: Having a computer technology class would prepare students for future employment. 0 Evidence: Approximately 75% of jobs today incorporate technology to some degree (Smith 50). 0 Evidence: For example, if a student wants to be a mechanic, they will use computers to run diagnostics before they begin repair work. Structure of the Toulmin Model Claim Premise Premise Objection Evidence Evidence Reply Warrant Warrant The Warrant 0 Definition: The connection between the evidence and the premise or overall claim (comparable to an explanation of the evidence’s purpose in supporting the premise and/or claim). 0 Claim: Our school should add a computer technology class. 0 Premise: Having a computer technology class would prepare students for future employment. 0 Evidence: For example, if a student wants to be a mechanic, they will use computers to run diagnostics before they begin repair work. 0 Warrant: This shows that even jobs that are considered more “manual labor” are utilizing technology these days. Creating Examples with an Exemplar 0 Create sample evidence statement appropriate to each score in the Toulmin Rubric. 0 Create sample warrants appropriate to each score in the Toulmin Rubric. Organizing the Body Paragraph Example A: Example B: 0 Premise 0 Evidence 1 0 Warrant 1 0 Evidence 2 0 Warrant 2 0 (Concluding Stmt.) 0 Premise 0 Evidence 1 0 Evidence 2 0 Warrant 1 0 Warrant 2 0 (Concluding Stmt.) * These are just two possibilities of many, and as students achieve higher levels of mastery, they should be able to further manipulate the components to meet the needs of their argument. Structure of the Toulmin Model Claim Premise Premise Objection Evidence Evidence Reply Warrant Warrant The Objection/Reply Paragraph 0 Objection Definition: Potential 0 Reply Definition: Response to counter-arguments to a claim (should include evidence and warrants, just like any other body paragraphs) an objection (should include evidence and warrants, just like the other body paragraphs) • Many people believe that recycling is too expensive and timeconsuming. (follow w/ evidence/warrant) • In the long run, not recycling will actually cost tax payers more money. (follow w/ evidence/warrant) • Others have expressed that students should be able to use physical violence as a means of defending themselves. (follow w/ evidence/warrant) • If students respond to violence with violence, a cycle will develop in which everyone gets hurt. (follow w/ evidence/warrant) A word of warning… 0 Toulmin is a model, but it is not a “plug-it-in” formula. 0 Poor Sample: 0 (Premise>) First, our school should have vending machines because it will make students feel better. (Evidence>) Many students say they like having snack alternatives to cafeteria food. (Warrant>) This shows that students will feel better if they have vending machines. (Evidence>) Also, most students get hungry later in the day. (Warrant>) Having something to snack on later will make them happier. 0 With a new partner, brainstorm how you will reteach this student to properly use the premise, evidence, and warrant. Essay Paragraphs/ Sections The Rubric Essay Section Components Essay Section Component Elements Scores Essay Samples 0 In small groups, use the full Toulmin Rubric to score a sample Interim. 0 6th Grade 0 7th Grade 0 9th Grade 0 10th Grade Reflection 0 What obstacles do you anticipate occurring while teaching the Toulmin model to your scholars? 0 How can you combat those obstacles?