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Chapter 5
1
1.
2.
3.
4.
Understand the importance of scope
management for project success.
Construct a Work Breakdown Structure for a
project.
Develop a Responsibility Assignment Matrix
for a project.
Describe the roles of changes and
configuration management in assessing
project scope
2
Project scope is everything about a project – work
content as well as expected outcomes, which should
include
- activities to be performed
- resources consumed
- end product result
- quality standard expected
Scope management is the function of controlling a project
in terms of its goals and objectives and consists of:
1) Conceptual development 4) Scope reporting
2) Scope statement
5) Control systems
3) Work authorization
6) Project closeout
See Table 5.1 for details
3
The process that addresses project objectives
by finding the best ways to meet them.
Collect data and develop information:
 Problem or need statement
 Information gathering and baselining
 Constraints and restrictions
 Alternative solution analysis
 Project objectives with a clear statement of
expectations
4
Sets the stage for the project
Successful conceptual development requires:
 Goals and objects are clearly stated
◦ Should be specific and measureable
◦ i.e. Create goals such as “Improve gas mileage from
12 mpg to 16 mpg by June 30th” not “Improve gas
mileage”


Complete understanding of the problem
Use the SMART model
5
6

Poorly written objective:
◦ Seminar delivered via electronic media.

Improved:
◦ The project management seminar will be delivered
via Web conference at 10:00 a.m. central time, on
January 15th. The host, John Schneider, will discuss
the ethics of project management for 50 minutes,
followed by a 10-minute question-and-answer
session at the conclusion of the session.
7
A SOW is a detailed narrative description of the
work required for a project.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Effective SOWs contain
Key objectives for the project
A brief and general description of the work to
be performed
Background or history of why this is a project
Expected outcomes
Funding and schedule constraints
Timeline and milestones
Signatures of acceptance
See UPMM_IIL_Project Charter.doc
and Table 5.2
8
1.
Establish the project goal criteria
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
2.
3.
4.
cost
schedule
performance
deliverables
review/approval gates
Develop the management plan for the
project
Establish a work breakdown structure
Create a scope baseline
9
A process that sets a project’s scope by breaking down
its overall mission into a cohesive set of synchronous,
increasingly specific tasks.
What does the WBS accomplish?
1. It echoes project objectives.
2. It is the organization chart for the project.
3. Creates the logic for tracking costs, schedule, and
performance specifications for each element in the
project.
4. May be used to communicate project status.
5. May be used to improve overall project
communication.
6. Demonstrates how the project will be controlled.
10
The project is the overall
project under development
1.0
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.2.1
1.3.1
1.2.2
1.3.2
1.2.3
1.2.3.1
Deliverables are major
project components
Sub-deliverables are supporting
deliverables
Work packages are individual project
activities
1.2.3.2
11
Lowest level in WBS
Deliverable result
One owner
Miniature projects
Milestones
Fits organization
Trackable
12
13
Organizational Breakdown Structure (OBS) allows
 Define work definition
 Owner assignment of work packages
 Budget assignment to departments
OBS links cost, activity &
responsibility
14
15
16

Identify personnel who will be directly responsible
for each work package
Task
Deliverable
& Code
Match IT to
Problem
1.1.1
Org. Tasks
Analysis
1.1
Develop
1.1.2
info
Identify IS
user needs
Prepare
proposal
Interview
1.2 users
Develop
show
Gain user
“buy in”
1.3
Find cost/
benefit info
Notification
LEAD PROJECT PERSONNEL
Ann
Dave
Sue
Jim
HR
R&D
IS
R&D
Bob
IS
1.2.1
1.2.2
1.2.3
1.3.1
Responsible
Approval
Support
See UPMM_IIL_Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM).doc17
Let the work begin!!
The formal “go ahead” to begin working the
project.
Follows the approval of scope management
steps:
1. scope definition
2. planning documents
3. management plans
4. contractual documents
18
Most contracts contain:
Requirements
Valid consideration
Contracted terms
Contracts range from:
Lump Sum
Cost Plus
also called
“Turnkey”
19
Determines what types of information is
reported, who receives copies, when, and how
information is acquired and disseminated.
Typical project reports contain
1.
Budget performance status
2.
Schedule status
3.
Technical performance status
Solid communication between all parties is one of
the most important task to be accomplished.
20
21









Politics
Naïve promises
Naïve optimism
Startup mentality of fledging entrepreneurial
companies
“Marine Corps” mentality
Intensive competition caused by globalization
Intense competition caused by appearance of new
technologies
Intense pressure caused by unexpected
government regulations
Unexpected and/or unplanned crises
#1 Reason
Poor Scope Statements!
22
Control systems are vital to ensure that any changes to
the project baseline are conducted in a systematic
and thorough manner.






Configuration – same scope?
Design – same scope, schedule and cost?
Trend monitoring – same cost, schedules and
resources?
Document – documentation compiled and circulated?
Acquisition – monitors resources
Specification – monitors requirements and change
control
How does a project become a year late?
One day at a time!
See UPMM_IIL_Project Change Request Form.doc
23
The job is not over until the paperwork is done…
Closeout documentation is used to:
Resolve disputes
Train project managers
Facilitate auditing
Closeout documentation includes:
Historical records
Post project analysis – post-mortem process
Financial closeout
24
1.
2.
3.
What are the primary benefits of developing
a comprehensive project scope analysis?
What are the key characteristics of a work
package?
Create a Work Breakdown Structure for a
term paper project or another schoolrelated project you are working on. What
are the steps in the WBS? Can you identify
any sub-steps for each step?
25
4.
5.
6.
7.
What are the benefits of designing a
Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM) for a
project?
Develop an argument for scope reporting
mechanisms. At a minimum, what types of
reports do you consider necessary for
document control of a project? Why?
What is the chief purpose of configuration
management? In your opinion, why has it
become increasingly popular in recent years as
part of the project management process?
What is the logic behind developing a plan for
project closeout prior to even beginning the
project?
26
Customer Request
Ima Prez says, “I want a phone system like the
company downstairs.”
 Your Task
1. Starting with Ima’s stated want/need,
develop a set of questions so that project
objectives and functional and technical
requirements can be established.
2. Based on Ima’s stated want/need, rewrite it
as a SMART objective in a functional format.

27
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