Understanding Challenging Behavior Session 2 Amy Leishear, Elementary Behavior Specialist [email protected] Terri Bednarik, Elementary Low Incidence Specialist [email protected] Aimee Meyer, Elementary Behavior Specialist [email protected] AACPS Division of Special Education Para-educator Training Videos Pre Assessment Name: School: Date: 1. True or False; The principal completes the Functional Behavioral Assessment and then gives it to the team? 2. What do you think are the reasons why student’s act out? 3. True or False; The best way to describe a child’s behavior is to be specific? 4. Why should you identify what happened before the child started the behavior? 5. Why should we teach the child a new skill to replace the behavior if it is working for them? The Big Picture 1. Understand functions of behavior and the purpose of FBAs and BIPs 2. Identify steps to conduct an accurate FBA and develop an effective BIP A Quick Look at the FBA Process Assumptions of Functional Behavior Assessments • The purpose of intervention is to improve quality of life. (How are problem behaviors barriers to life goals?) Behavior is contextual/ serves a purpose The focus of intervention is changing the context FBA is a team-based approach/ process Interventions must have a contextual fit Identifying Functions of Behavior To Get/ Obtain Functions of Behavior To Escape/ Avoid Attention Objects or Activities Sensory Input/ Stimulation Why do a Functional Behavior Assessment? Encourages non-aversive procedures Incorporates multiple data sources Data driven tool for designing and monitoring effective Behavior Intervention Plans Team approach encourages “buy-in” It’s the law!!! Purpose of Functional Behavior Assessments Identify relationships between patterns of behavior and environmental events Gather accurate data that will support the effectiveness of the behavior Intervention Plan (diagnostic/ prescriptive) Identify appropriate replacement behaviors that will serve the desired function FBA/BIP Steps Overview 1. Define the Interfering Behavior 2. Collect Baseline Data & Identify 3. 4. 5. 6. Antecedents/Consequences Develop a Hypothesis or Summary Statement Develop a BIP, including Reinforcement Schedules, Prevention Strategies & Response Strategies Implement BIP Modify Program as Needed Step 1 Define the interfering behavior Use language that is specific, understandable, and objective. Based on the definition, the behavior can be easily observed. Guidelines For Identifying Problem Behaviors Be Specific Be Concise Be Detailed Be Objective Problem behaviors must be measurable and observable. Defining Target Behaviors Non-examples Examples Poor impulse control Angry, hostile Paying attention Bad attitude High-pitched scream Kicking over chairs Complete tasks “Whatever!” Kenny Kenny is in 2nd grade. He has tremendous difficulty working independently on any type of written academic task. He is not organized and often is unsure of how to respond to his work, loses his belongings-folders, pencils, and papers. He will often cry or pout when he is not able to find his school supplies. When his teacher requests that he work on tasks at his desk such as writing he will begin to cry, bang his head and throw himself on the floor. He will do this behavior 6 to 8 times per day. The behavior incident lasts for a few minutes to up to 20 minutes before he will get calmed down. When he is approached by the teacher, he is not able to talk to her about what is wrong with him. Step 2 Collect Baseline Data Review definitions of target/challenging behaviors and data collection tools with everyone working with the student Data should be collected across settings, people and activities Step 3 Develop a hypothesis or summary statement Specify triggers (antecedents) and conditions or setting events Specify the hypothesized function of the interfering behaviors Example: Sample: Hypothesis When (trigger/antecedent conditions), the student is likely to _(problem behavior) in order to (function). This is more likely to occur when _(influencing conditions or setting events). Example: When it is time for Math, John throws his books in order to get out class. This is most likely to occur when he comes to class late. Identifying Functions of Behavior To Get/ Obtain Functions of Behavior To Escape/ Avoid Attention Objects or Activities Sensory Input/ Stimulation •How do we determine the function of the behavior? Motivation Assessment Scale When the Function is Identified…. Identifying the goal or expected outcome for the student should be stated in positive terms. For example….. Janie will complete 50% of her classroom work daily, John will follow directions with less than 2 prompts, Jack will keep his hands to himself 100% of the time FBA’s lead to Interventions Intersperse preferred activities with more challenging ones. Teach Kenny some organizational skills. Provide him with a lot of support in the beginning but then fade supports while continuing to reinforce independent behavior. Teach Kenny to ask for a break and give him space in the class to take one. Consider a gradual demand increase. Provide reinforcement for attempting non-preferred work tasks and for asking for and using breaks appropriately. Integrate technology as a strategy to develop independence. AACPS Division of Special Education Para-educator Training Videos Post Assessment Identify a student who you work with that displays challenging behavior Identify one or two of their challenging behaviors and answer the following: • • • • • • What does the behavior look like? How often does it occur? How severe or intense is the behavior? What skills appear to be lacking? What do you believe the function of the behavior is and why? What interventions might you try and why?